The explosion and then the fires completely demolished the bow section at one-third of her length, from frame 10 to 70. Reference (b) lists eight bomb hits on the vessel, one of which apparently was large and of the armor piercing type. A bomb which hit and detonated close to the port leg of the tripod at the superstructure deck level severed the port leg, and the starboard leg was insufficient to prevent forward collapse. The 5"/51 caliber powder magazines are located on the first platform aft of the 14-inch smokeless powder magazines and between frames 50 and 58, port and starboard. She displaced 29,158 long tons (29,626 t) at standard and 31,917 long tons (32,429 t) at deep load, over 4,000 long tons (4,060 t) more than the older ships. The burned-out, sunken wreck of USS Arizona (BB-39), photographed some days after the attack. II turret. These bombs unquestionably damaged the air intakes to the steaming fireroom (not identified, although some evidence indicates that No. The ship was sent to Turkey in 1919 at the b… It appears that ARIZONA escaped torpedo damage during the initial torpedo attack which occurred at about 0800. Site Description and Analysis (continued) Beginning at the stem of the USS ARIZONA and heading aft, a swimming observer would be struck first with the very sharp lines of the bow. Picture 208 definitely shows the magazine explosion in which the dense black smoke of the previous picture changes to white, and luminous objects can be seen. The collapse of the foremast structure was not due, among other curious things, to the main magazine detonation. About half the 1,117 crewmen killed that day were aboard the … Then I went up to the nav bridge. The USS Arizona was a 950-ton iron-hulled, side-wheel steamer built in 1858. ", It can be concluded from the above conditions that smokeless powder is difficult to detonate as a result of fire. The massive explosion that followed has never been fully explained, since the bomb apparently did not pierce Arizona's armored deck, which protected her magazines. document.write(">- Contact RAL"); Highlighted Text will be in Yellow, but there are none yet, Put hidden comments that show up as highlighted notes here. 84 to 88. The Commanding Officer of VESTAL, in reference (e), stated that at about 0820 a torpedo was seen to pass astern of the VESTAL and that this torpedo apparently hit the ARIZONA, whose bow extended about 100 feet beyond the stern of VESTAL. It appears that condition ZED was not completely set on and above the third deck and probably most of the third deck armored hatches were still open. Underway during the 1930s. One of them was the USS Arizona, which went down after a bomb hit the powder magazine. Highlight & Comment Reference (a) found evidence of only five bomb hits, all of which were aft of the foremast structure. on her wanted to save the line to tie up to one of the buoys, and assisted by a seaman from 4 turret, we rendered the bow line around and cast her off. The references comprise the majority of important information accumulated regarding the loss of ARIZONA. Rode out to the USS Arizona with one of 10 remaining survivors Don Stratton and the project team from NPS and Autodesk I have been working with. Mr. Fuqua said in a calm, cool voice, "Turn it on", when he saw that we had hooked up the hose. A-704, stbd side, and proceeded to hook it up at 3 turret amidship. The turrets and the conning tower collapsed 30 feet into the ship's hull. The wardroom, portside, was flooded even with the bottom of the deck coamings and yellowish gaseous smoke continued to pour out of the ventilators and machine shop hatch, amidship. your own Pins on Pinterest The same distance separated the stern of ARIZONA from the bow of NEVADA. ", "Most black powder fires start from sparks, and ignition results in an explosion so quickly that no attempt can be made to fight the fire. As the pictures proceed, the fire gets worse, finally engulfing the entire ship forward of the mainmast. NYPearl Itr. Her sides were blown out and the turrets, conning tower, and much of the superstructure dropped several feet into her wrecked hull. From reference (a) the ARIZONA had on board her full allowance of smokeless powder, arranged three magazines on each side of the vessel between frames 31 and 48 on the first platform. Naval Academy, The Sullivan Brothers and the Assignment of Family Members, The African American Experience in the U.S. Navy, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in the U.S. Navy, Contributions of American Indians to the U.S. Navy, Naval Service of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Personnel, The World Cruise of the Great White Fleet, Navy Underwater Archaeology Return Program, Annual Navy History and Heritage Awards - Main, Research Permits for Sunken & Terrestrial Military Craft, Scanning, Copyright & Citation Information, Obtain Duplications of Records and Photos, Battleship Row During the Pearl Harbor Attack, USS Arizona During the Pearl Harbor Attack. Arizona on Dec. 7, 1941, when it was bombed. With respect to the properties of black powder, the following pertinent information is quoted from the same manual: "Black powder is regarded as one of the worst known explosive hazards. On December 7, 1941, the ship was bombed in the surprise attack, causing a … In this connection see pictures 99 and 136. 5. The stem at the hull bottom (forefoot) extends forward of the deck line, creating a bulbous bow form that is covered by silt and not visible to divers. ", "Most explosions of black powder originate from sparks. The explosion in the center gun room killed 47 of the turret's crewmen and severely damaged the gun turret itself. ", "Loose black powder is extremely dangerous.". The smoke issuing from the stack was quite obviously the result of incomplete combustion rather than an explosion or fire. He further states that ARIZONA received a bomb hit forward almost simultaneously, and that ARIZONA'S forward magazine exploded. Burning oil on the surface of the water was ignited. 6. 12. At the same time the ship was so thoroughly broken up forward of the foremast structure that evidence of a heavy bomb hit in the vicinity of turret II would be certain to be completely obliterated. The loss of Pennsylvania -class battleship the USS Arizona was the biggest blow of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Arizonahad an overall length of 608 feet (185.3 m), a beam of 97 feet (29.6 m) (at the waterline), and a draft of 29 feet 3 inches (8.9 m) at deep load. 70 and upward through the decks forward of turret #1. Suddently the whole bridge shook like it was an earthquake, flame came through the bridge windows which had been broken by gunfire. She spent the next few years serving as gunboat for the Western Gulf Blockade Squadron until October 1864 when it received orders to serve the flagship for the squadron under Admiral David Farragut. 10 and 70, it is difficult to determine the exact magazines in which high order detonation took place, although the more severe damage is between about Frs, 10 and 33. document.write(""); A bomb detonation within the smokeless powder magazines presumably could cause a detonation, although smokeless powder as such is not an unusually severe hazard. Fuqua, USN said in a steady voice, "Put that fire out back, aft", which the bomb had started. Early reports claimed that she had been hit by one torpedo in the first part of the action. Fuqua, still on board. Mr. Fuqua was the senior officer on deck and set an example for the men in being unperturbed, calm, cool, and collected, exemplifying the courage and traditions of an officer under fire. It is estimated that picture 46 was taken within 0.5 sec. AR4/Lll-l/(066) of 11 December, 1941 (Action Report). The only people up there were the Capt., the quartermaster and myself. There is no doubt that the smokeless powder magazines detonated. Courage and performance of all hands was of the highest order imaginable, especially being handicapped by adverse conditions and shipmates being blown up alongside them, there was no disorder or tendency to run around in confusion. Forum rules. We three were trying to get out the port door at the after end of the bridge during all this shaking, but could not, we staggered to the stbd side and fell on the deck just fwd of the wheel. 6 was in use). This was at about 0815-0820. It is this jet of black smoke which apparently gave rise to the rumor that a bomb went down her stack. USS Arizona (BB-39) was moored inboard of the repair ship Vestal (AR-4) when the Japanese struck Pearl Harbor. Toward the end of the reel the sagged forward structure becomes apparent, although the smoke and flame obscure the entire foremast structure in the series of pictures following 203. I called to Wentzlaff, A0M2/c, Hurst, AMM3/c, Bruns, Heo.2/c and Lane, RM3/c to rig the fire hose aft, as they were going to our general quarters station with me. document.write("whitet"); Share with: ... 1,547 160. bill jurens. He then told me to see if I could get pressure turned on. It seemed like the men, painfully burned, shocked and dazed, became inspired and took things in stride, seeing Mr. Fuqua, so unconcerned, STATEMENT OF DONALD A. GRAHAM, AMMl/c USN (Continued). On hearing the explosions and gun reports, Wentzlaff, E., AOM2/c came in saying we were being attacked and bombed by Jap planes. ", "When smokeless powder is stored in magazines in containers or propelling charges, there is no evidence to indicate that fires will give rise to any unusual hazard. I stepped outside the shop and started to my general quarters station on the quarterdeck, shouting "let's go", A bomb hit the after end of #4 turret, glancing off onto the quarterdeck, at the Captain's hatch, stbd side. I got up and ran to it, and ran down the port ladders, passing through flames and smoke. All these sources were used, as well as certain publications of the Army with respect to stability and characteristics of black powder and smokeless powder, In the following analysis: 1. ", "Cases in which pressures great enough to result in structural damage have occurred involved the burning or explosion of smokeless powder under circumstances not ordinarily encountered in the storage of the material in containers. This was 25 feet (7.6 m) longer than the older ships. Picture 46 definitely shows an explosion on the bow of ARIZONA. Colloquium on Contemporary History 1989-1998, DANFS - Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Needs and Opportunities in the Modern History of the U.S. Navy, Permitting Policy and Resource Management, "Ex Scientia Tridens": The U.S. (c) It appears that the explosion in the forward magazines was vented through the sides of the ship from about Fr. All other structure above the top edge of the side armor between frames 10 and 70 was completely demolished - in faet, most of it was missing. If you can see this text here you should update to a newer web browser, Normal | Shortly after the end of the war, Arizona was one of a number of American ships that briefly escorted President Woodrow Wilson to the Paris Peace Conference. There were lots of men coming out on the quarterdeck with every stitch of clothing and shoes blown off, painfully burned and shocked. The combination provided lightweight, effective protection from most shells. On the other hand the armor belt was substantially intact and Pearl Harbor found absolutely no evidence of a torpedo hit on or just below the armor. Reference (d) further states that when the attack started, condition ZED was nearly set in turrets III and IV. 16. Times in all the references of the various sequences of events check reasonably well, that is, within 4 or 5 minutes. The signal gang, quartermasters, and all hands on the bridge went up as the signal men were trying to put out a fire in the signal rack and grabbing signal flags out to hoist a signal, the whole bridge went up, flames enveloping and obscuring them from view as the flames shot upward twice as high as the tops. I saw the admiral on the signal bridge. Transcribed by RESEARCHER @ LARGE. did not want to, making phone calls. Then I climbed half way down the signal bridge ladder and had to jump to the boat deck as it was bent way under. I looked around and saw that there was nothing that I could do. Approximately 7 seconds after the start of this fire and after the initial bomb detonation, the main magazines exploded, almost completely destroying the ship forward of frame 70, Undoubtedly, the smokeless powder magazines detonated en masse. Valor in the Pacific press event: I will be posting about this project, the team, the technology, partners, my participation, and … On the other hand, the detonation of 1000 pounds of black powder could easily initiate a detonation of the 14-inch smokeless powder. Finally I raised my head and turned it and saw that the port door was open. WEST VIRGINIA's mainmast is also in these pictures and shows a definite list, indicating that WEST VIRGINIA had already been torpedoed prior to the pictures. The whole port compartment, A-704, from the quarterdeck on was a flaming inferno and the ship settled radpidy from fwd aft. Many qualified authorities have blamed powder storage outside of the magazines as the cause, but this is conjectural and probably will always remain so. In any event, the six 14-inch and the two 5-inch smokeless powder magazines detonated. The majority of engineering spaces were in condition "Z" and locked. I have looked at the Arizona explosion in detail, by examining the large scale drawings of the wreckage prepared by wreck divers in 1942-1943, the ship's general arrangement plans, and the film of the explosion and/or the rather extensive still photo collection which the Navy made during the course of salvaging what became in the end a constructive total loss. Roll of 35mm movie film, obtained through the Office of Strategic Services, of OSS ARIZONA on the morning of 7 December, 1941 -- photographer unknown. This fire spread rapidly over a large area and increased rapidly in intensity. if he wanted to go into the conning tower, but the Capt. Reveille sounded at 5:30 a.m. Sunday, same time as every day. Immediately forward of ARIZONA at berth F-6 was TENNESSEE, moored starboard side to, and WEST VIRGINIA outboard of TENNESSEE, with both vessels being headed down channel. projectiles, which the Japanese used for bombs, might have penetrated the 4-1/4-Inch STS armored deck and initiated a fire followed by a detonation of the smokeless powder magazines. The air raid siren sounded, followed by the General Quarters alarm. The precise location cannot be determined, but the general location can be spotted on a map of Pearl Harbor, which is also available. The black powder could have detonated either as the result of a bomb detonation below the third deck or a fire above the third deck passing down to the black powder magazines thru open hatches in the armored deck. Formatting & Comments Copyright [email protected] BB-39 Arizona Home | Ships Home | [email protected] Home The first 45 of these pictures show the ARIZONA and VESTAL, and include the bow of NEVADA and the stern of WEST VIRGINIA. Almost simultaneously a torpedo attack on battleship row occurred. When opportunity permits this case will be discussed with representatives of the Bureau of Ordnance. Between pictures 45 and 46 the camera was apparently stopped for an indeterminate time. Share. Certain other action reports, notably those of WEST VIRGINIA, TENNESSEE, and MARYLAND, contain fragmentary information of minor value. It seemed as though one bomb hit the port after anti-aircraft crew and came down through the casemate and Executive Officer's Office. Reference (f), of which a 3" x 5" movie strip is available, comprises about 400 pictures taken at the rate of 24 per second. All the references agree that the bombs which struck ARIZONA fell between 0815 and 0820. Due to the general extent of interior damage between Frs. Fire. document.write("
2020 uss arizona explosion analysis