There were, however, numerous types and sizes of bread, according to different uses, mixtures and methods of cooking. The city of Rome grew rapidly in the centuries of the Roman Republic and Empire, reaching a population approaching one million in the second century AD. Then, come back for more. , The most important sources of the grain, mostly durum wheat, were Egypt, North Africa (21st century Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco), and Sicily. In the first century BCE, the three major sources of wheat were Sardinia, Sicily, and North Africa, i.e.  Casson estimates the outward freighters "raced down from Ostia or Pozzuoli to Alexandria with the wind on their heels in ten days to two weeks" and the voyage back laden with grain "...took at least a month and on occasion two or more. It's more authentic in this recipe: it's what the Romans would have used. The annual Nile Flood began in June and thus harvest had to be finished before the river's waters covered the land. Cristofori, Alessandro "Grain Distribution on Late Republican Rome," pp 146-151. For those who could afford it, breakfast (jentaculum), eaten very early, would consist of salted bread, milk, or wine, and perhaps dried fruit, eggs, or cheese.It was not always eaten. Lucian, c. 150 CE, described a very large grain ship taking shelter in the port of Piraeus, Greece. The expression "bread and circuses" captures a certain cynical political view that the masses can be kept happy with fast food (think Cartman's "Cheesy Poofs" on South Park) and faster entertainment (NASCAR races, NFL games, and the like).In the Roman Empire, it was bread and chariot races and gladiatorial games that filled the belly and distracted the mind, allowing emperors to rule as … Several scholars have attempted to compute the total amount of grain needed to supply the city of Rome.  Grain was packed into sacks, rather than carried loose in the holds of ships. Eat it on the go for a real Roman lunch break. The Romans sometimes used a … Animal-driven mills (usually using donkeys) with a much larger capacity appeared in Rome by the 3rd century BCE, and the establishment of bakeries probably accompanied the adoption of animal-driven mills. Cura Annonae was the term used in ancient Rome, in honour of their goddess Annona, to describe the import and distribution of grain to the residents of the city of Rome. Smaller ships coming from North Africa or Egypt could proceed directly to Ostia for unloading. Although most ar… The most famous circus, which was in Rome, was the Circus Maximus. Roast Wild Boar. Roman games, called ludi, were probably instituted as an annual event in 366 BC. He refers to Christ using the variant spelling of "Chrestus." , In the early centuries of the Roman Republic and Empire, the individuals receiving the grain took it to one of many small flour mills in the city to have it ground into flour and then either baked the flour into bread at a home oven, a communal oven, or one of the numerous bakeries in every district of the city. The aqueduct was inaugurated in 109 CE and the water it carried was used initially as drinking and bathing water. Found in nearly every corner bakery in Roma, treccia is named for its “braided” shape. The Greek slaves taught the Romans to use several different flours in a single loaf instead of one common flour as … Around the late fifth century BC appeared new hard and soft grains, probably originating in Sicily and Africa, of higher quality and more readily releasable … The Historia Augusta, states that Severus left 27 million modii in storage, enough for 800,000 inhabitants at 225 kilograms (496 lb) of bread per person per annum. Pictured below, the twisted pane is a tasty cross between bread and breadsticks. The population of the city of Rome declined precipitously during the 5th, the last century of the Western Roman Empire, and 6th centuries AD. Research Roman musical instruments. " Thus, a large fleet of seaworthy grain ships was required to bring grain from relatively nearby Sicily and Sardinia, more distant North Africa, and much more distant Egypt. Taylor, Rabun (2010), "Bread and Water; Septimus Severus and the Rise of the curator Aquarum et Miniciae,", Linn, jason (Fall 2012), "The Roman Grain Supply, 442-455,", Twine, Kevin (1992), "The City in Decline: Rome in Late Antiquity,". The voyage was late in the sailing season, after the Day of Atonement (which is usually in early October) and the winds were adverse. Literally. The grain in Egypt was apparently acquired by Rome as a tax on farmers. After passing through the Straits, large grain ships would dock at the port of Puteoli, near Naples, or after port improvements about 113 CE, at Ostia near Rome. Barley. The Isis was 55 metres (180 ft) in length and had a beam of more than a quarter of that. Hanson J.W., Ortman S.G., A dole of subsidized or free grain, and later bread, was provided by the government to about 200,000 of the poorer residents of the city of Rome, an early and long-lasting example of a social safety net.  Due to its "decreasing population, smaller army, and more land to feed its population", Rome did not need many of its watermills, storehouses, bakeries, and port and transportation facilities. The precise details of how grain was marketed in Rome, however, are a "major puzzle". Breakfast and Lunch Roman Style . Here you have the majority of what made up an ancient Roman’s diet. During the empire, this post became an important bureaucratic position to be filled by the senatorial elite prior to achieving a consulship.  Erdkamp estimated that the amount needed would be at least 150,000 tonnes, calculating that each resident of the city consumed 200 kilograms (440 lb) of grain per year. A regular and predictable supply of grain and the grain dole were part of the Roman leadership's strategy of maintaining tranquillity among a restive urban population by providing them with what the poet Juvenal sarcastically called "bread and circuses". On arrival in the port of Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber River, the grain was off-loaded from its transport ship and loaded onto barges which were hauled up the river by animal or man power to the city of Rome, approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) upriver. Weigh out ingredients to make Roman bread. Wheat from the earliest days of the republic, already formed the basis of their diet mainly used in kind of porridges, hence their nickname "pultiphagonides" is to say "porridge eaters", given by their neighboring Greeks of Southern Italy. Hand-driven mills had only a small capacity of grinding grain into flour, serving an individual household or a few households.  The population of the city grew beyond the capacity of the nearby rural areas to meet the food needs of the city. The emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641) was forced to end the grain supply after the shahanshah's Khosrow II's (r. 590–628) capture of Alexandria in 621.. , In the early centuries of the Republic (509-287 BC), the Roman government intervened sporadically to distribute free or subsidized grain to its population. , Bread was the most important item in the Roman diet. , Grain from North Africa. As the techniques of grinding and sifting the flour and the preparation and baking of bread were becoming more sophisticated, the production moved from the family to the “industrial”, thank to the work of skilled artisans (according to Plinio, starting from 171 BC). Grain supply was an important issue for the Gracchi, with the elder brother Tiberius Gracchus arguing that consolidation of Roman agricultural lands in the hands of a few had pushed landless Romans into the city, where they found poverty rather than employment. In chariot races, two- or four-horse chariots ran seven laps totaling anywhere from three to five miles. Water-driven mills with still greater capacity were first utilized in the 1st century BCE, but their development required a large investment in infrastructure, especially of aqueducts, and their use to grind nearly all of the grain for the city of Rome did not come until the late 2nd or 3rd centuries CE. Grain that was wet could sink the ship by expanding and splitting the sideboards of the hull..  An emergency cura annonae was an important source of influence and power for Pompey in his later career. With the incorporation of Egypt into the Roman empire and the rule of the emperor Augustus (27 BCE-14 CE), Egypt became the main source of supply of grain for Rome. Grain must be kept cool and dry to prevent sprouting and infestations of pests and mold and prevented from shifting from side to side in the hold of the ship which could impact the seaworthiness of the transport ship. Charles, Michael and Ryan, Neal (2009), "The Roman Empire and the Grain Fleets: Contracting out Public Services in Antiquity," pp. Ships of much larger capacity are suggested in Lucian and the Acts of the Apostles. These porridges (puls) are mainly based on …  But the unpopularity of these laws led to more conservative laws attempting to rein in the Gracchi reforms such as the lex Octavia and the lex Terentia Cassia.. Learn a song about the Romans (like this one) and perform it to an audience. The grain supply was a consistent plank in the popularist platform for political leaders who appealed to the plebs. The ships involved in the grain trade were privately owned. The ship was large, with 276 people aboard, counting both crew and passengers. Directed by Ralph Senensky. Acidic dough used to make Panettone is cured before being shaped into a cupola, which extends from a cylindrical base. The price of grain became a major issue when the Roman province of Sicily revolted repeatedly, thus pushing the price to unaffordable levels.  The doles of bread, olive oil, wine, and pork apparently continued until near the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, although the decline in the population of the city of Rome reduced the quantities of food required.  "The voyage...from Alexandria to Rome was a continuous fight against foul winds." Around the late fifth century BC appeared new hard and soft grains, probably originating in Sicily and Africa, of higher quality and more readily releasable from the chaff, which allowed a rapid improvement of bread making softer and less acids buns and bread. " Estimates of the date when the watermills came into operation vary, but it was probably in the early 3rd century. The official responsible for the provision of the alimenta was the Curator alimentorum. There it was inspected for quality and, when accepted, transported by canal to the port of Alexandria, the Great Harbor, where it was loaded on ships for Rome. Music. The use of mills facilitated the grinding and the advances in screening techniques allowed to differentiate the quality of flour and semolina. After the re-foundation of Byzantium by Constantine the Great (r. 306–337), the imperial city of Constantinople had its own cura annonae. Writing in the early 6th century, Cassiodorus noted the large decrease in the population and the number of watermills.