No, Joseph Smith, Jr. did not have a middle name. [277] Upon introducing the Melchizedek or "High" Priesthood in 1831, Smith taught that its recipients would be "endowed with power from on high", thus fulfilling a need for a greater holiness and an authority commensurate with the New Testament apostles. [71] With growing opposition in New York, Smith gave a revelation stating that Kirtland was the eastern boundary of the New Jerusalem, and that his followers must gather there. During this period, Smith briefly attended Methodist meetings with his wife, until a cousin of hers objected to inclusion of a "practicing necromancer" on the Methodist class roll. [132] The charter also authorized the Nauvoo Legion, an autonomous militia whose actions were limited only by state and federal constitutions. Smith said he experienced a series of visions, including one in 1820 during which he saw "two personages" (presumably God the Father and Jesus Christ), and another in 1823 in which an angel directed him to a buried book of golden plates inscribed with a Judeo-Christian history of an ancient American civilization. [42], Smith made his last visit to the hill on September 22, 1827, taking Emma with him. [76] Though his mission to the Indians had been a failure, Cowdery reported that he had found the site of the New Jerusalem in Jackson County, Missouri. After the birth of Joseph Smith, Jr., a series of crop failures forced the family to move to Palmyra, New York. Stones outline the home where Joseph Smith was born and mark where the 1905 memorial cottage once stood. The purpose of the temple rituals was to give people the knowledge they needed to enter God’s presence and to become like God. [178], Mormons and non-Mormons have produced a large amount of scholarly work about Smith, and to a large extent the result has been two discordant pictures of very different people: a man of God on the one hand, and on the other, a fraud preying on the ignorance of his followers. "The keys of the kingdom," he wrote, "have not been taken away from us". [90], In late 1837, a series of internal disputes led to the collapse of the Kirtland Mormon community. [225] Sometimes, Smith concealed the process by raising a curtain or dictating from another room, while at other times he dictated in full view of witnesses while the plates lay covered on the table. [174] Conversely, within Mormonism, Smith was remembered first and foremost as a prophet, martyred to seal the testimony of his faith. [259] Nevertheless, spirits could not experience a "fullness of joy" unless joined with corporeal bodies, according to Smith. Joseph Smith was born on December 23, 1805 in Sharon, Vermont. He disfavored imprisonment of convicts except for murder, preferring efforts to reform criminals through labor; he also opposed courts-martial for military deserters. [114] In the Battle of Crooked River, a group of Mormons attacked the Missouri state militia, mistakenly believing them to be anti-Mormon vigilantes. The Lord Jesus Christ called Joseph Smith as a prophet to prepare the way for His coming in glory. Emma believed in her husband’s calling but could not abide additional wives. He died on February 11, 2012 at 59 years of age. [88] Smith gave a revelation saying that to redeem Zion, his followers would have to receive an endowment in the Kirtland Temple. John A. Wilson, "The Joseph Smith Egyptian Papyri: Translations and Interpretations, harvtxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSmith1994 (, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFHarris2015 (. Later revelations dealt primarily with the priesthood, endowment, and exaltation. [230], Smith said that in June 1830, he received a "revelation of Moses" in which Moses saw "the world and the ends thereof" and asked God questions about the purpose of creation and man's relationship to God. [204] Young, whom Emma feared and despised, was suspicious of her desire to preserve the family's assets from inclusion with those of the church, and thought she would be even more troublesome because she openly opposed plural marriage. Joseph Smith Jr. was born on December 23, 1805, to Lucy Mack Smith and Joseph Smith Sr. [213] The story begins with a family that leaves Jerusalem, just before the Babylonian captivity. It also recommended that Latter Day Saints avoid "strong" alcoholic drinks, tobacco, and "hot drinks" (later interpreted to mean tea and coffee). Smith's revelations often came in response to specific questions. [142] In the summer of 1842, Smith revealed a plan to establish the millennial Kingdom of God, which would eventually establish theocratic rule over the whole Earth. Smith was held responsible for the failure, and there were widespread defections from the church, including many of Smith's closest advisers. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The book resembled the Bible in its length and complexity and in its division into books named for individual prophets. His followers believed that Smith’s actions were directed by revelation. [281] For example, this power would enable proxy baptisms for the dead and priesthood marriages that would be effective into the afterlife. [185] Smith had proposed several ways to choose his successor, but had never clarified his preference. In the narrative, Enoch speaks with God, receives a prophetic calling, and eventually builds a city of Zion so righteous that it was taken to heaven. His mother, Lucy Mack, came from a Connecticut family that had disengaged from conventional Congregationalism and leaned toward Seekerism, a movement that looked for a new revelation to restore true Christianity. In answer to his question about which was the right church, they told him that all the churches were wrong. [126] Smith also attempted to portray the Latter Day Saints as an oppressed minority, and unsuccessfully petitioned the federal government for help in obtaining reparations. By 1817, he had moved with his family to western New York, the site of intense religious revivalism during the Second Great Awakening. [268] Smith said that children who died in their innocence would be guaranteed to rise at the resurrection and receive exaltation. [120], Smith's months in prison with an ill and whining Rigdon strained their relationship. In 1844, when the Nauvoo Expositor criticized Smith's power and practice of polygamy, Smith and the Nauvoo city council ordered the destruction of their printing press, inflaming anti-Mormon sentiment. The collapse of the church-sponsored Kirtland Safety Society Anti-Banking Company and violent skirmishes with non-Mormon Missourians caused Smith and his followers to establish a new settlement at Nauvoo, Illinois, where he became a spiritual and political leader. [269], Smith's teachings were rooted in dispensational restorationism. In June 1843, enemies of Smith convinced a reluctant Illinois Governor Thomas Ford to extradite Smith to Missouri on an old charge of treason. Later, a group of Eight Witnesses — composed of male members of the Whitmer and Smith families — issued a statement that they had been shown the golden plates by Smith. [282] Elijah's sealing powers also enabled the second anointing, or "fulness [sic] of the priesthood", which, according to Smith, sealed married couples to their exaltation. Like matter, Smith saw "intelligence" as co-eternal with God, and taught that human spirits had been drawn from a pre-existent pool of eternal intelligences. Smith was born in Sharon, Vermont, the fifth of eleven children born to Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack Smith. For at least some of the earliest dictation, Smith is said to have used the "Urim and Thummim", a pair of seer stones he said were buried with the plates. They had 12 children, including 2 adopted children. [288], Smith taught that the highest level of exaltation could be achieved through "plural marriage" (polygamy), which was the ultimate manifestation of this New and Everlasting Covenant. [143], By mid-1842, popular opinion had turned against the Mormons. [289] Plural marriage, according to Smith, allowed an individual to transcend the angelic state and become a god, accelerating the expansion of one's heavenly kingdom. [86] Nevertheless, Zion's Camp transformed Mormon leadership, and many future church leaders came from among the participants. [13][14] He was one of 11 children. [154] Believing the dissidents were plotting against his life, Smith excommunicated them on April 18, 1844. [181] More nuanced interpretations include viewing Smith as: a prophet who had normal human weaknesses; a "pious fraud" who believed he was called of God to preach repentance and felt justified inventing visions in order to convert people;[182] or a gifted "mythmaker" who was the product of his Yankee environment. [53] As punishment for losing the manuscript, Smith said that the angel returned and took away the plates, and revoked his ability to translate. [279] The endowment was extended to women in 1843, though Smith never clarified whether women could be ordained to priesthood offices. Smith introduced baptism for the dead in 1840, and in 1841, construction began on the Nauvoo Temple as a place for recovering lost ancient knowledge. Some were received for a specific individual, while others were directed at the whole church. Governor Lilburn Boggs then ordered that the Mormons be "exterminated or driven from the state". By the time of his death, 14 years later, he had attracted tens of thousands of followers and founded a religion that continues to the present with millions of global adherents. [109], In a speech given at the town's Fourth of July celebration, Rigdon declared that Mormons would no longer tolerate persecution by the Missourians and spoke of a "war of extermination" if Mormons were attacked. [256] For instance, the doctrines of baptism for the dead and the nature of God were introduced in sermons, and one of Smith's most famed statements about there being "no such thing as immaterial matter" was recorded from a casual conversation with a Methodist preacher. [115] On October 30, a party of Missourians surprised and killed seventeen Mormons in the Haun's Mill massacre. [60] These men, known collectively as the Three Witnesses, signed a statement stating that they had been shown the golden plates by an angel, and that the voice of God had confirmed the truth of their translation. [103] Smith encouraged the settlement of land outside Caldwell County, instituting a settlement in Adam-ondi-Ahman, in Daviess County. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [249], Also in 1833, at a time of temperance agitation, Smith delivered a revelation called the "Word of Wisdom," which counseled a diet of wholesome herbs, fruits, grains, a sparing use of meat. [155] These dissidents formed a competing church and the following month, at Carthage, the county seat, they procured indictments against Smith for perjury and polygamy. Joseph Smith 1805-1844 Born on December 23, 1805, in Sharon, Vermont, to Joseph and Lucy Mack Smith, Joseph Smith Jr. grew up on a series of tenant farms in Vermont, New Hampshire, and New York. Smith was then released on a writ of habeas corpus from the Nauvoo municipal court. It was Joseph Smith, Jr. Joseph F. Smith was his nephew. [69], On their way to Missouri, Cowdery's party passed through northeastern Ohio, where Sidney Rigdon and over a hundred followers of his variety of Campbellite Restorationism converted to Mormonism, more than doubling the size of the church. Joseph and Emma had four sons who lived to maturity: Joseph Smith III, Frederick Granger Williams Smith, Alexander Hale Smith, and David Hyrum Smith. [63] After Cowdery baptized several new church members, the Mormons received threats of mob violence; before Smith could confirm the newly baptized members, he was arrested and brought to trial as a disorderly person. [116], The following day, the Latter Day Saints surrendered to 2,500 state troops and agreed to forfeit their property and leave the state. [251] In 1835, Smith gave the "great revelation" that organized the priesthood into quorums and councils, and functioned as a complex blueprint for church structure. After the faithful left Nauvoo in 1846, they migrated to Utah, where they constructed Salt Lake City on a pattern laid down by Joseph Smith for the cities of Zion. Joseph Smith was born on December 28, 1926. Omissions? He was martyred on June 27, 1844. Illinois accepted Mormon refugees who gathered along the banks of the Mississippi River,[125] where Smith purchased high-priced, swampy woodland in the hamlet of Commerce. [43] This time, he said he successfully retrieved the plates. Instead of presenting his ideas with logical arguments, Smith dictated authoritative scripture-like "revelations" and let people decide whether to believe. [285] To fully enter the Covenant, a man and woman must participate in a "first anointing", a "sealing" ceremony, and a "second anointing" (also called "sealing by the Holy Spirit of Promise"). For instance, in the early 1830s, he temporarily instituted a form of religious communism, called the United Order, that required Latter Day Saints to give all their property to the church, which was divided among the faithful. In 1838, facing expulsion for a third time, Smith tried to defend the church with arms. [134], In 1841, Smith began revealing the doctrine of plural marriage to a few of his closest male associates, including Bennett, who used it as an excuse to seduce numerous women wed and unwed. The Prophet Joseph was born on December 23, 1805, the 5th of 11 children. Absolutely resolute in all of his projects, he never became discouraged, even under the most trying circumstances. [160] Smith, who feared another mob attack, supported the action, not realizing that destroying a newspaper was more likely to incite an attack than any libel. [166] Once the Smiths were in custody, the charges were increased to treason, preventing them from posting bail. Among these five groups was a quorum of twelve apostles. In a church-wide conference on August 8, most of the Latter Day Saints elected Young, who led them to the Salt Lake Valley as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). They first gathered in Kirtland, Ohio, and established an outpost in Independence, Missouri, which was intended to be Zion's "center place". Joseph Smith was born on February 27, 1952. [66] In response, Smith dictated a revelation which clarified his office as a prophet and an apostle, and which declared that only he held the ability to give doctrine and scripture for the entire church. As in the Bible, men took the leading roles in church affairs, but by the end of his life Smith taught that men and women were redeemed together through eternal marriage. During the next two-and-a-half years he married or was sealed to about 30 additional women,[296] ten of whom were already married to other men. [222] As such, considerable disagreement about the actual method used exists. [248] Three months later, Smith gave a lengthy revelation called the "Olive Leaf" containing themes of cosmology and eschatology, and discussing subjects such as light, truth, intelligence, and sanctification; a related revelation given in 1833 put Christ at the center of salvation. [78] Rigdon, however, disapproved, and for most of the 1830s the church remained divided between Ohio and Missouri. In response, local Missourians rose up in wrath, and the governor ordered that the Mormons be driven out of the state or, where that was not possible, exterminated. Learn joseph smith with free interactive flashcards. Smith came from an unremarkable New England family. Where was Joseph Smith born? Later, about 400 ce, the record keepers, known as Nephites, were wiped out by their enemies, the Lamanites, presumably the ancestors of the American Indians. [290], By some accounts, Smith had been teaching a polygamy doctrine as early as 1831, and there is unconfirmed evidence that Smith was a polygamist by 1835. He lived great, and he died great in the eyes of God and his people” . [104] Smith explicitly approved of the expulsion of these men, who were known collectively as the "dissenters". [93] Building the temple had left the church deeply in debt, and Smith was hounded by creditors. Religious differences within the family and over religious revivals in the Palmyra area left Smith perplexed about where to find a church. [255] Smith moved away from formal written revelations spoken in God's voice, and instead taught more in sermons, conversations, and letters. [145] (Rockwell was later tried and acquitted.) [33] Smith said he attempted to remove the plates the next morning, but was unsuccessful because the angel returned and prevented him. Joseph Smith used the same seer stone as one aids to his "translation" of the Book of Mormon. "[211], The Book of Mormon has been called the longest and most complex of Smith's revelations. During the first half of the 20th century, some writers suggested that Smith might have suffered from epileptic seizures or from psychological disorders such as paranoid delusions or manic-depressive illness that might explain his visions and revelations. Smith came from an unremarkable New England family. [23] Smith said that he became interested in religion by age 12. "[29] Smith said he recounted the experience to a preacher, who dismissed the story with contempt. A fifty-foot monument rises up in the Vermont countryside today, just a few steps from the original site of the roughly 800-square-foot farmhouse where Joseph Smith Jr. was born. Updates? Two law officers arrested Smith, but were intercepted by a party of Mormons before they could reach Missouri. [188] Smith's sons Joseph III and David also had claims, but Joseph III was too young and David was yet unborn. During the 1830s, Smith sent out missionaries, published revelations, and supervised construction of the Kirtland Temple. [127] During the summer of 1839, while Latter Day Saints in Nauvoo suffered from a malaria epidemic, Smith sent Brigham Young and other apostles to missions in Europe, where they made numerous converts, many of them poor factory workers. [293] Cowdery suspected Smith had engaged in a relationship with his serving girl, Fanny Alger. [272] Though Smith did not claim exclusive prophethood, an early revelation designated him as the only prophet allowed to issue commandments "as Moses". [57] When the narrative described an institutional church and a requirement for baptism, Smith and Cowdery baptized each other. [298] The practice of polygamy was kept secret from both non-Mormons and most members of the church during Smith's lifetime. [214] They eventually construct a ship and sail to a "promised land" in the Western Hemisphere. Joseph Smith was born on December 23, 1805 in Sharon, Vermont. [75], Converts poured into Kirtland. Joseph Smith was born on January 25, 1919. The book explains itself to be largely the work of Mormon, a Nephite prophet and military figure. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. [61] According to Smith, the angel Moroni took back the plates once Smith finished using them. He lived in Vermont until about 1816 when the family relocated to Palmyra, New York. [229] The language of authority in Smith's revelations was appealing to converts, and the revelations were given with the confidence of an Old Testament prophet. When the farm failed, Joseph Senior moved the family to Palmyra, New York, hoping to do better. As such, Smith and other Latter Day Saints did not strictly follow this counsel, though it later became a requirement in the LDS Church. Meanwhile, non-Mormon hostility in the surrounding county had been growing for the usual reasons, and, when the press was closed, irate local citizens brought charges of promoting riot against Smith and his brother Hyrum. [16][17][18][19][20] Between 1817 and 1825, there were several camp meetings and revivals in the Palmyra area. [167], On June 27, 1844, an armed mob with blackened faces stormed Carthage Jail where Joseph and Hyrum were being held. By 1838, Smith had abandoned plans to redeem Zion in Jackson County, and after Smith and Rigdon arrived in Missouri, the town of Far West became the new "Zion". The Prophet Joseph was born on December 23, 1805, the 5th of 11 children. 1833 Age 27. Joseph Smith’s life is a testimony to the reality of that calling. [209] In fact Smith's first recorded revelation was a rebuke chastising Smith for having let Martin Harris lose 116 pages of Book of Mormon manuscript. Most accounts describe Joseph Smith actually testifying under oath that he really could divine the location of treasure! [273] This religious authority encompassed economic and political as well as spiritual matters. [260], Though Smith initially viewed God the Father as a spirit,[261] he eventually began teaching that God was an advanced and glorified man,[262] embodied within time and space. “I was called of my Heavenly Father to lay the foundation of this great work and kingdom in this dispensation, and testify of His revealed will to scattered Israel.” [301] In 1843, Emma temporarily accepted Smith's marriage to four women boarded in the Smith household, but soon regretted her decision and demanded the other wives leave. As a teenager, he may have been sympathetic to Methodism. [311] Smith said that blacks were not inherently inferior to whites, and he welcomed slaves into the church. Some historians have speculated—based on journal entries and family stories—that Smith may have fathered children with his plural wives. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Smith was devastated not only by the loss of the manuscript but the loss of his first son who had died shortly after birth. He had no other wife but me; nor did he to my knowledge ever have". [35], Meanwhile, the Smith family faced financial hardship, due in part to the death of Smith's oldest brother Alvin, who had assumed a leadership role in the family. June 27, 1844. [157] The paper decried Smith's new "doctrines of many Gods", alluded to Smith's theocratic aspirations, and called for a repeal of the Nauvoo city charter. It tells the story of the rise and fall of a religious civilization beginning about 600 BC and ending in 421 AD. Completing the work in less than 90 days, he published it in March 1830 as a 588-page volume called the Book of Mormon. [203], After Smith's death, Emma Smith quickly became alienated from Brigham Young and the church leadership. By the summer of 1835, there were fifteen hundred to two thousand Mormons in the vicinity, many expecting Smith to lead them shortly to the Millennial kingdom. Name at birth: Joseph Smith, Jr. Raised a Christian in Vermont and New York, Joseph Smith was the founding prophet of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as the Mormon church. [163] Fearing an uprising, Smith mobilized the Nauvoo Legion on June 18 and declared martial law. [194] Others followed Lyman Wight and Alpheus Cutler. At the heart of his teachings was a confidence in the spiritual potential of common people. [15] After an ill-fated business venture and three successive years of crop failures culminating in the 1816 Year Without a Summer, the Smith family left Vermont and moved to western New York, taking out a mortgage on a 100-acre (40 ha) farm in the townships of Palmyra and Manchester. [231] Smith said that the Bible had been corrupted through the ages, and that his revision worked to restore the original intent; it added long passages rewritten "according to his inspiration". At the age of seven Smith suffered a crippling bone infection and, after receiving surgery, used crutches for three years. The Joseph Smith Birthplace Memorial is a granite obelisk on a hill in the White River Valley near Sharon and South Royalton in the U.S. state of Vermont.It marks the spot where Joseph Smith was born on December 23, 1805. [152] Most notably, William Law, Smith's trusted counselor, and Robert Foster, a general of the Nauvoo Legion, disagreed with Smith about how to manage Nauvoo's economy. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Smith fled Kirtland for Far West, Missouri, in 1838, but opposition arose once more. [201] Emma campaigned publicly against polygamy, and was the main signatory of a petition in 1842, with a thousand female signatures, denying that Smith was connected with polygamy. [133] Smith made Bennett Assistant President of the church, and Bennett was elected Nauvoo's first mayor. Smith said they contained the writings of the ancient patriarchs Abraham and Joseph. [84], Smith ended the communitarian experiment and changed the name of the church to the "Church of Latter Day Saints," before leading a small paramilitary expedition called Zion's Camp, to aid the Missouri Mormons. Renaming the site Nauvoo (a Hebrew word meaning “Beautiful Place”), Smith built his most successful settlement, complete with a temple (finished only after Smith’s death) on a bluff overlooking the town. [138] The endowment resembled rites of freemasonry that Smith had observed two months earlier when he had been initiated "at sight" into the Nauvoo Masonic lodge. Joseph Smith Jr. was born 23 December 1805 in Sharon, Vermont, to Joseph and Lucy Mack Smith. [271] At first, Smith's church had little sense of hierarchy; his religious authority was derived from visions and revelations. [117] Smith was immediately brought before a military court, accused of treason, and sentenced to be executed the next morning; Alexander Doniphan, who was Smith's former attorney and a brigadier general in the Missouri militia, refused to carry out the order. Joseph Smith Jr. (December 23, 1805 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement. [131] Though Mormon authorities controlled Nauvoo's civil government, the city promised an unusually liberal guarantee of religious freedom. Their devotion to each other was sorely tried by the practice of polygamy. When questions arose, he would call upon God and dictate words in the voice of the Lord. Joseph Smith was born on December 31, 1969. Joseph Smith Jr. was born on December 23, 1805, to Lucy Mack Smith and Joseph Smith Sr. At the time, the Smiths lived in a small home on a farm owned by Lucy’s father, Solomon Mack. He supported capital punishment but opposed hanging, preferring execution by firing squad or beheading. His followers regard him as a prophet comparable to Moses and Elijah, and several religious denominations consider themselves the continuation of the church that he organized, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Community of Christ. [283], During the early 1840s, Smith unfolded a theology of family relations called the "New and Everlasting Covenant" that superseded all earthly bonds. (the exact number of wives is uncertain.). Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, List of sects in the Latter Day Saint movement, Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Freemasonry and the Latter Day Saint movement, "Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841-46: A Preliminary Demographic Report", "A Trajectory of Plurality: An Overview of Joseph Smith's Thirty-three Plural Wives", "Gospel Topics: Plural Marriage in Kirtland and Nauvoo", "Joseph Smith DNA Revealed: New Clues from the Prophet's Genes - FairMormon", "An Overview of the Burned-Over District by John H. Martin", "Joseph Smith's Experience of a Methodist "Camp-Meeting" in 1820", 10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.0802307, "Smith, Joseph: Legal Trials of Joseph Smith", "A Brief History of the Smith Family Nauvoo Cemetery", "Joseph Smith, Brigham Young rank first and third in magazine's list of significant religious figures", Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite), "Facts and Statistics: Worldwide Statistics", "DNA tests rule out 2 as Smith descendants: Scientific advances prove no genetic link", "Reconstructing the Y-Chromosome of Joseph Smith, Jr.: Genealogical Applications", "Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham", "Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham: A Response", "The Significance of Joseph Smith's "First Vision" in Mormon Thought", "The Lion and the Lady: Brigham Young and Emma Smith", "The King Follett Discourse: A Newly Amalgamated Text", "Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841–46: A Preliminary Demographic Report", The History of Joseph Smith by His Mother, Official LDS Church site about Joseph Smith, List of Reorganized Restorationist churches, Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) history, Doctrine and Covenants (Book of Commandments),, Candidates in the 1844 United States presidential election, Apostles of the Church of Christ (Latter Day Saints), Latter Day Saint missionaries in the United States, Prophet-Presidents of the Community of Christ, Tarring and feathering in the United States, Victims of religiously motivated violence in the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Latter Day Saint biography Infobox with missing parameters, Pages using infobox Latter Day Saint biography with unsupported parameters, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 05:31.
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