Estimated response surface for viscosity at S/PL=1.2, L(%) vs F/PL. A., and Foster, N. C. (1989). They have been widely used for the production of molded products including billiard balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. Norambuena, M., Vidal, C., Carrasco, L., Reyes, P., Parra, C., Contreras, D., and Teixeira Mendonça, R. (2016). The sodium hydroxide (0.1 N) was used to adjust the pH to 3.5. Among all of the modification treatments that increase reactive sites in lignin, the phenolation and hydroxymethylation modifications are the most studied and effective for formulation of phenolic resins (Nada et al. In the early studies related to the use of lignin for phenolic resins manufacturing, different types of unmodified lignins, which were obtained directly from the pulping liquor, were investigated. The parameters used to characterize the modified phenol-formaldehyde resins were: free-formaldehyde, gel time, viscosity, pH, and solid content. The molecular weights are in the low thousands, corresponding to about 10–20 phenol units. 2017). © 2020 NC State University. ), Wood Adhesives Chemistry and Technology, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. In this research work, modified phenol-formaldehyde resins were prepared using hydroxymethylated alkaline rice straw lignin as a substitute for petroleum-based phenol in the range of 20 to 50% by weight.  The phenolic units are mainly linked by methylene and/or ether groups. DOI: 10.15376/biores.6.3.3515-3525, Hoareau, W., Oliveira, F. B., Grelier, S., Siegmund, B., Frollini, E., and Castellan, A. (2011).”Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins,”BioResources 6(3), 3547-3568. Available Variants : Resin for Magnesia-Carbon Bricks - PROREZ 7015; Resin for Blast Furnace Tap-hole Mass - PROLAC ABC Phenol reacts with formaldehyde at the ortho and para sites (sites 2, 4 and 6) allowing up to 3 units of formaldehyde to attach to the ring. Lignin–Adhesive Research for Wood Composites, Forest and Wildlife Research Center. (2000). Production of Phenol-formaldehyde Adhesives from Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil Angela M. Akude Utah State University Follow this and additional works at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd Part of the Biological Engineering Commons Recommended Citation Akude, Angela M., "Production of Phenol-formaldehyde Adhesives from Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil" (2017). Sellers, T., Lora, J. H., and Okuma, M. (1994). “Structural modification and characterization of lignosulfonate by a reaction in an alkaline medium for its incorporation into phenolic resins,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 102(4), 3286-3292.DOI: 10.1002/app.24744, El Mansouri, N. E., Pizzi, A., and Salvado, J. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2015.10.010, Zhang, W., Ma, Y., Xu, Y., Wang, C., and Chu, F. (2013). (2006). 2. It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in Yonkers, New York, in 1907. 2016; Norambuena et al. 1999; Alonso et al. “Finnish plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard made with a lignin-base adhesive,” Forest Products Journal 29(7), 39-43. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.10.020, Khan, M. A., and Ashraf, S. M. (2005). “The isolation and characterization of lignin of kenaf fiber,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 114(3), 1896-1901. “Use of a methylolated softwood ammonium lignosulfonate as partial substitute of phenol in resol resins manufacture,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 94(2), 643-650. Urea-formaldehyde is the resin most commonly used for particleboard manufacture. The prepared resins were characterized, and the obtained results were discussed according to the specifications of resins applied for plywood manufacturing. In this last group, only the soda lignins have a short-term potential for industrial availability. This lignin was produced by ShangDong QuanMing Paper Making Co. Ltd. by the alkaline process using sodium hydroxide and Na2CO3from rice straw. One of its important applications is as an adhesive for wood-based panels manufacturing. A., and Yousef, M. A. In the case of free formaldehyde content, within the range of the three studied variables, the obtained values for formaldehyde content were lower than 0.2%, which is the maximum value acceptable for environmental reasons. 2001; El Mansouri et al. The analysis of variance (Table 4) showed that, at the p=0.05 significance level, gel time was significantly influenced by [S/(P+L)] and L(%) together with the cross-terms L(%)*[S/(P+L)], [F/(P+L)]*[S/(P+L)], and L(%)*[F/(P+L)]*[S/(P+L)]. These bands are assigned to C=O stretching in unconjugated ketone and carbonyl bond in ester group or in conjugated p-substituted aryl ketone, respectively (Khan and Ashraf 2005).The absorption bands at 1600 cm-1 and 1500 cm-1are assigned to aromatic ring vibrations. (2017) confirm a similar trend of increasing viscosities of lignin-based phenolic resins with increasing lignin replacement (Cheng et al. (1983). This is done by reacting resorcinol with formaldehyde. The initial reaction in all cases involves the formation of a hydroxymethyl phenol: The hydroxymethyl group is capable of reacting with either another free ortho or para site, or with another hydroxymethyl group. Finally, 10 mL of a hydroxylamine-hydrochloride solution (10%, w/w) was added. Phenol-formaldehyde resins are heat-resistant and waterproof, though somewhat brittle. Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) is a thermosetting resin that is widely used in many fields. It is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from a condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. DOI: 10.1002/app.26941, Tejado, A., Kortaberria, G., Pena, C., Blanco, M., Labidi, J., Echeverria, J. M., and Mondragon, I. The obtained resins were cooled and stored at lower temperature pending to analysis. Table 2 lists the results of fitting the data for pH (Y1), gel time (Y2) and viscosity (Y3) with polynomials of the form (Eq. (2004). Previous research findings from Cheng et al. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2012.08.004. All rights reserved. 1989; Peng 1994). Phenol and formaldehyde are charged into the kettle in specified quantaties. Flexural and compressive mechanical properties,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 107(1), 159-165. Table 2. We manufacture premium Quality Phenol Formaldehyde Resin covering both NOVOLAC and RESOL for Refractory and Foundry Industry. The modeled response surface (Fig. Elements. DOI: 10.3390/molecules22111850, Tachon, N., Benjelloun-Mlayah, B., and Delmas, M. (2016). Ghorbani, M., Liebner, F., van Herwijnen, H. W. G., Pfungen, L., Krahofer, M., Budjav, E., and Konnerth, J. However, modified resins with gel time near to 10min can be considered and tested for plywood manufacturing if they present low free formaldehyde content.  There are many variations in both production and input materials that are used to produce a wide variety of resins for special purposes. 1). “Hydrothermal degradation of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin in water-isopropyl alcohol co-solvent,” BioResources 11(3), 6867-6879. The pH requirements for the resol resins were 9.5 or higher. RESI-SET ® liquid resins are specifically designed for the foundry no-bake process.. “Lignin-based wood adhesives,” in: Pizzi, A. “Optimization of experimental variables to modify lignin fromEucalyptus globulus under alkaline catalysis,” BioResources 11(1), 1828-1842. Phenolic laminates are made by impregnating one or more layers of a base material such as paper, fiberglass, or cotton with phenolic resin and laminating the resin-saturated base material under heat and pressure. The fitted model for the viscosity gave an R2 value of 97.40% and a standard deviation of residuals (SDR) of 37. Développement de Nouveaux Adhésifs Bases sur des Dérivés de la Lignine, Ph.D. Dissertation, UMI Dissertation Services. For that, the unmodified lignins are relatively reluctant to undergo either self-condensation or condensation with formaldehyde, phenol, or phenol formaldehyde prepolymer (Vázquez et al.1999). For the free formaldehyde content and solid content, the analysis of variances showed no significant dependence on the studied independent variables. Overall, the viscosity values obtained are between 330 and 790 (mPas), and most of the prepared resins have viscosities within the range of 275to425 (mPas) suitable for use in plywood manufacture (Alonso et al. This resin has good chemical resistance, electrical insulation, and dimensional stability, but the price and environmental concerns may limit usage in some applications. Hexamethylenetetramine is a hardener added to crosslink novolac. The reactive species is the phenoxide anion (C6H5O−) formed by deprotonation of phenol. Lignin is a good candidate to replace phenol in the phenol formaldehyde resins’ formulation because (a) its polyphenolic structure is similar to that of phenolic resin (Fig. Yan, T. T., Xu, Y. Q., and Yu, C. W. (2009). (ed. 2004). The used apparatus for gel time determination operates in accordance with ISO 9396 B. Intratec offers professional, easy-to-understand reports examining Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins production. Fernández-Rodríguez, J., Erdocia, X., Sánchez, C., González Alriols, M., and Labidi, J. Novolacs have multiple uses as tire tackifier, high temperature resin, binder for carbon bonded refractories, carbon brakes, photoresists and as a curing agent for epoxy resins. “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” in: Methods in Lignin Chemistry, Li n, S.Y., and Dence, C. W. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.04.027. “Characterization and phenolation of biorefinery technical lignins for lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive synthesis,” RSC Advances 4(101), 57996-58004. Phenol-formaldehyde resins, as a group, are formed by a step-growth polymerization reaction that can be either acid- or base-catalysed. Phenolic resins are found in myriad industrial products. DOI: 10.1002/app.2119, Alonso, M. V., Oliet, M., Rodriguez, F., Astarloa, G., and Echeverria, J. M. (2004). 2015; Ma et al. DOI:10.15376/biores.11.3.6867-6879. The structural differences and similarities between the prepared resins were determined by FTIR spectroscopy. Solid content was determined by gravimetry from the weighted amount of resin before and after drying the resin samples at 150 °C for 30 min. “Lignin phenol formaldehyde resoles: The impact of lignin type on adhesive properties,” BioResources 11(3), 6727-6741. In this video the preparation of a phenol formaldehyde resin is shown. (2006). “Alkali lignin depolymerization under eco-friendly and cost-effective NaOH/urea aqueous solution for fast curing bio-based phenolic resin,” Industrial Crops and Products 120, 25-33. 2014; Podschun et al. Formaldehyde is to be commercially manufactured on an industrial scale from methanol and air in the presence of a sliver catalyst or the use of a metal oxide catalyst. The process of polymerizing the compound is completed by adding acidic catalysts like sulfuric acid, oxalic acid, or sulfonic … DOI: 10.1002/app.25098, El Mansouri, N.-E., Yuan, Q., and Huang, F. (2011a). 1997; Alonso et al. In the PF, a band at 3373 cm-1was observed, which shows the presence of OH groups. DOI: 10.1002/app.1983.070280209. The Dutch painting forger Han van Meegeren mixed phenol formaldehyde with his oil paints before baking the finished canvas, in order to fake the drying out of the paint over the centuries. Forss, K. G., and Fuhrmann, A. Formaldehyde Resin Phenolic Resin Drilling Fluids Filtration Control Agent Phenol Formaldehyde Resin. Article submitted: October 11, 2011; Peer review completed: January 8, 2012; Revised version received and accepted: August 12, 2018; Published: September 7, 2018. Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde. R. S. Skinner, M. T. Skubiak, and D. H. Wetherell. DOI: 10.15376/biores.6.3.2647-2662, El Mansouri, N.-E., Yuan, Q., and Huang, F. (2011b).
2020 phenol formaldehyde resin manufacturing process