But neither the high average intelligence of the analytic philosophers nor the occasional emergence of an analytic philosopher energetic and creative enough to overcome a disadvantaged early environment (e.g., a Donald Davidson, a Bernard Williams, a Daniel Dennett) may be enough to save the discipline from decadent scholasticism. Bertrand Russell - Can't think of the specific paper, but something about his work on language This helps keep discussion in the comments on topic and relevant to the linked material. use the following search parameters to narrow your results: To learn more about what is and is not considered philosophy for the purposes of this subreddit, see our FAQ. If you have unrelated thoughts or don't wish to read the content, please post your own thread or simply refrain from commenting. Hahahaha "living off it." Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. [37] Alston, grappling with the consequences of analytic philosophy of language, worked on the nature of religious language. [–]WittgensteinBerySwne 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (1 child). For example, in this view, saying, "Killing is wrong", is equivalent to saying, "Boo to murder", or saying the word "murder" with a particular tone of disapproval. Kripke's Naming and Necessity, already mentioned, for philsophy of language and logic. Owing largely to Gettier's 1963 paper "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? The other, known as "Oxford philosophy", involved J. L. It evolved into more sophisticated non-cognitivist theories such as the expressivism of Charles Stevenson, and the universal prescriptivism of R.M. Analytic philosophy of religion has also been preoccupied with Wittgenstein, as well as his interpretation of Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy of religion. Although many discussions are continuations of old ones from previous decades and centuries, the debate remains active. Anscombe's 1958 "Modern Moral Philosophy" sparked a revival of Aristotle's virtue ethical approach and John Rawls's 1971 A Theory of Justice restored interest in Kantian ethical philosophy. (2000). Therefore if there is a purpose or meaning to life, it lies in maximizing, perfecting, and improving states of consciousness. Another influential philosopher, Pavel Tichý initiated Transparent Intensional Logic, an original theory of the logical analysis of natural languages—the theory is devoted to the problem of saying exactly what it is that we learn, know and can communicate when we come to understand what a sentence means. An alternative higher-order theory, the higher-order global states (HOGS) model, is offered by Robert van Gulick.[25]. Users must follow all reddit-wide spam guidelines, and in addition must not submit more than one post per day on /r/philosophy. [15] With the coming to power of Adolf Hitler and Nazism in 1933, many members of the Vienna and Berlin Circles fled to Britain and the US, which helped to reinforce the dominance of logical positivism and analytic philosophy in anglophone countries. Users are also strongly encouraged to post abstracts for other linked material. Many traditional philosophical problems are dismissed because their terms are too vague, while those that remain are subjected to a rigorous logical analysis. Those definitions often include an emphasis on conceptual analysis: A.P. Phillips in Philosophy's Cool Place, which rests on an interpretation of a passage from Wittgenstein's "Culture and Value. The logical positivists opined that statements about value—including all ethical and aesthetic judgments—are non-cognitive; that is, they cannot be objectively verified or falsified. Posts must not be behind any sort of paywall or registration wall. His conception of behaviorism became much more inclusive over his career. I recommend this anthology for a good grounding in analytic philosophy. I believe he's on record as saying that sometimes he says things not because he believes them to be true or even likely, but because he considers them interesting ideas. But because value judgments are of significant importance in human life, it became incumbent on logical positivism to develop an explanation of the nature and meaning of value judgments. Examples include Ryle, who tried to dispose of "Descartes' myth", and Wittgenstein. The history of analytic philosophy (taken in the narrower sense of "20th-/21st-century analytic philosophy") is usually thought to begin with the rejection of British idealism, a neo-Hegelian movement. In reaction to what he considered excesses of logical positivism, Karl Popper insisted on the role of falsification in the philosophy of science—although his general method was also part of the analytic tradition. Adams worked on the relationship of faith and morality. But although I’ve learned how to do philosophy, nobody ever told me how do it, and, so far as I would guess, nobody will have told you how to do it, or is likely to tell you how … While there is a general consensus for the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness,[24] there are many opinions as to the specifics. Another development of political philosophy was the emergence of the school of analytical Marxism. Russell, during his early career, along with his collaborator Alfred North Whitehead, was much influenced by Gottlob Frege (1848–1925), who developed predicate logic, which allowed a much greater range of sentences to be parsed into logical form than was possible using the ancient Aristotelian logic. To see him in a top five list is somewhat bizarre. Behaviorism later became much less popular, in favor of type physicalism or functionalism, theories that identified mental states with brain states. The second is in logical positivism and its attitude that unverifiable statements are meaningless. Thus the fifth phase, beginning in the mid 1960s and continuing beyond the end of the twentieth century, is characterized by eclecticism or pluralism. At a minimum, this includes: stating the problem being addressed; stating the thesis; stating how the thesis contributes to the problem; outlining some alternative answers to the same problem; saying something about why the stated thesis is preferable to the alternatives; anticipating some objections to the stated thesis and giving responses to them. For example, he refutes Skinner's classical version of behaviorism while offering an alternative that is nonetheless behaviorist in nature. [–]tablefor1 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children). In Saul Kripke's publication Naming and Necessity, he argued influentially that flaws in common theories of proper names are indicative of larger misunderstandings of the metaphysics of necessity and possibility. The work of these later philosophers have furthered Cohen's work by bringing to bear modern social science methods, such as rational choice theory, to supplement Cohen's use of analytic philosophical techniques in the interpretation of Marxian theory. [54] The philosophy of biology has also undergone considerable growth, particularly due to the considerable debate in recent years over the nature of evolution, particularly natural selection. Additionally, Russell adopted Frege's predicate logic as his primary philosophical method, a method Russell thought could expose the underlying structure of philosophical problems. [30][31][32] In education, applied ethics addressed themes such as punishment in schools, equality of educational opportunity, and education for democracy. [–][deleted] 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (2 children). The debate moves on. G.E.M. Exceptions are made only for posts about philosophers with substantive content, e.g. /r/philosophy is intended for philosophical material and discussion. More important, the development of modern symbolic logic seemed to promise help in solving philosophical problems—and logic is as a … Karl Popper - Two Meanings of Falsifiability, or any of his lectures on falsifiability. This is a typical problem: Someone comes up with a good idea and gets so excited that they run around acting as if their shiny new hammer turns everything into nails. Please contact the moderators for pre-approval. Popper's The Logic of Scientific Discovery or his Postscript are, I think, better than any of his lectures simply because they're far more detailed expressing his turns to methodology and metaphysics. A significant feature of analytic philosophy since approximately 1970 has been the emergence of applied ethics—an interest in the application of moral principles to specific practical issues. (I understand that the divide is not always clear-cut - and whether the division is a healthy one is a discussion worth having, but a separate one - though I think most of us would be able to confidentially call most philosophers one or the other. Verificationism is now considered completely discredited by the people who are right about things. The claims of ethics, aesthetics, and theology were consequently reduced to pseudo-statements, neither empirically true nor false and therefore meaningless. Analytic philosophy is one of two major branches of philosophy defined by its emphasis on formal logic, philosophy of language and scientism. [34]:3, As with the study of ethics, early analytic philosophy tended to avoid the study of philosophy of religion, largely dismissing (as per the logical positivists) the subject as part of metaphysics and therefore meaningless. [–]chzchbo 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children), Good luck! Thank you all - I'm keeping a running list and will, in the coming years, try to tackle as many of these works as I can. Central figures in this historical development of analytic philosophy are Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Everett, Anthony and Thomas Hofweber (eds.) J.O. He thereby argued that the universe is the totality of actual states of affairs and that these states of affairs can be expressed by the language of first-order predicate logic. The following is a list of the most cited articles based on citations published in the last three years, according to CrossRef. In his important book The Principles of Mathematics, he … Indeed, while the debate remains fierce, it is still strongly influenced by those authors from the first half of the century: Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, J.L. Hello Gents and Ladies! The best-known member of this school is G. A. Cohen, whose 1978 work, Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence, is generally considered to represent the genesis of this school. [–]Sloph 3 points4 points5 points 7 years ago (9 children). Other prominent analytical Marxists include the economist John Roemer, the social scientist Jon Elster, and the sociologist Erik Olin Wright. Spring 2018 AMA Series - Announcement & Hub Post! Indeed, the first analytic philosophers were German or Austrian (Frege, Wittgenstein). The first is G.E. [9] An important aspect of British idealism was logical holism—the opinion that there are aspects of the world that can be known only by knowing the whole world. Lennox, James G., "Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism" in Sakar and Plutynski (eds.). Skinner's problem wasn't that he was completely wrong, but that he took it too far. [16] In contrast to earlier analytic philosophers (including the early Wittgenstein) who thought philosophers should avoid the deceptive trappings of natural language by constructing ideal languages, ordinary-language philosophers claimed that ordinary language already represents many subtle distinctions not recognized in the formulation of traditional philosophical theories or problems. Originating in the pioneering work of Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, and Ludwig Wittgenstein in the four decades around the turn of the twentieth century, analytic philosophy established itself in various forms in the 1930s. Urmson's article "On Grading" called the is/ought distinction into question. [–]NeoPlatonist 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children), [–]ConclusivePostscript 2 points3 points4 points 7 years ago (1 child), Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations. ), [–]wza 17 points18 points19 points 7 years ago (3 children). [–]arkasia 5 points6 points7 points 7 years ago (1 child). During this time, utilitarianism was the only non-skeptical type of ethics to remain popular. (see linked article states for the problem statement; thesis; alternatives; and objections, and analysis), Frances Power Cobbe and Nineteenth-Century Moral Philosophy. (1998). To look up a philosopher you know the name of, click on the first letter of their last name. This is closely related to the opinion that relations between items are internal relations, that is, properties of the nature of those items. Start by looking at Quine's school. After World War II, during the late 1940s and 1950s, analytic philosophy became involved with ordinary-language analysis. These works are essential reading for anyone who wishes to understand the contemporary philosophical climate. Interest in its historical development is increasing, but there has hitherto been no sustained attempt to elucidate what it currently amounts to, and how it differs from so-called 'continental' philosophy. The Argument from Reason: A Case Against Metaphysical Naturalism. At the end of the 1960s some philosophers began to try constructing a systematic theory of meaning for natural languages, and on the basis of such a theory to formulate specific metaphysical statements. This explains the readiness with which typically analytical philosophers often get fasci-nated with typical speculative philosophers. It's not because he's some strange holdover from the bad old days, but rather that he's taken these two stances and evolved them forward. Links to Google Translated versions of posts are not allowed. Susanne Langer[59] and Nelson Goodman[60] addressed these problems in an analytic style during the 1950s and 1960s. Other important figures in its history include the logical positivists (particularly Rudolf Carnap), W. V. O. Quine, Saul Kripke, and Karl Popper. Google Analytics lets you measure your advertising ROI as well as track your Flash, video, and social networking sites and applications. All links to either audio or video content require abstracts of the posted material, posted as a comment in the thread. Analytic philosophy - Analytic philosophy - History of analytic philosophy: During the last decades of the 19th century, English philosophy was dominated by an absolute idealism derived from the German philosopher G.W.F. See here for an example of a suitable abstract. I don't understand your problem with the question- obviously some of the same names will pop up, but I've noticed a suprising amount of variation in the comments. Today, contemporary normative ethics is dominated by three schools: consequentialism, virtue ethics, and deontology. Order now. [51], Metaphysics remains a fertile topic of research, having recovered from the attacks of A.J. [29], Topics of special interest for applied ethics include environmental issues, animal rights, and the many challenges created by advancing medical science. Encouraging other users to commit suicide, even in the abstract, is strictly forbidden. Bas van Fraassen - Scientific Image (I may show my bias by including van Fraassen) [26] It was only with the emergence of ordinary language philosophers that ethics started to become an acceptable area of inquiry for analytic philosophers. These theories were not without their critics. As a result, analytic philosophers avoided normative ethics and instead began meta-ethical investigations into the nature of moral terms, statements, and judgments. Plantinga, Mackie and Flew debated the logical validity of the free will defense as a way to solve the problem of evil. Austin's philosophy of speech acts. Van Inwagen, Peter, and Dean Zimmerman (eds.) For them, philosophy concerned the clarification of thoughts, rather than having a distinct subject matter of its own. Philosophy of language is a topic that has decreased in activity during the last four decades, as evidenced by the fact that few major philosophers today treat it as a primary research topic. Instead, the logical positivists adopted an emotivist theory, which was that value judgments expressed the attitude of the speaker. Born in 1872 into an aristocratic family, Bertrand Russell is widely regarded as one of the founders of Analytic philosophy, which is today the dominant philosophical tradition in the English-speaking world. Go on Jstor and search for "It Ain't Necessarily So" and "Meaning and Reference.". [–][deleted] 5 points6 points7 points 7 years ago (2 children). The following (not exhaustive) list of items require moderator pre-approval: meta-posts, posts to products, services or surveys, links to other areas of reddit, AMAs. I'm an undergrad sophomore majoring in philosophy with at least April through the first part of August on my hands before I head back. Thomas Samuel Kuhn with his formulation of paradigm shifts and Paul Feyerabend with his epistemological anarchism are significant for these discussions. Analytic philosophy, perhaps because its origin lay in dismissing the relevance of Hegel and Hegelian philosophers (such as Marx), had little to say about political ideas for most of its history. This was changed radically, and almost single-handedly, by John Rawls in a series of papers from the 1950s onward (most notably "Two Concepts of Rules" and "Justice as Fairness") which culminated in his monograph A Theory of Justice in 1971, adducing philosophical grounds for defe… By the time he's writing "On Behaviorism" the differences between his behaviorism and the cognitive paradigm that replaced it are less significant than philosophers familiar only with his early work realize. [39] Using first-hand remarks (which was later published in Philosophical Investigations, Culture and Value, and other works), philosophers such as Peter Winch and Norman Malcolm developed what has come to be known as contemplative philosophy, a Wittgensteinian school of thought rooted in the "Swansea tradition," and which includes Wittgensteinians such as Rush Rhees, Peter Winch, and D.Z. Another factor at work here is that when people speak of Skinner, they are usually speaking of early Skinner. Twentieth-century meta-ethics has two origins. [49], Among the developments that resulted in the revival of metaphysical theorizing were Quine's attack on the analytic–synthetic distinction, which was generally considered to weaken Carnap's distinction between existence questions internal to a framework and those external to it. Russell's many appearances on the BBC also helped to promote the public understanding of ideas. People like me, who have been trying to do philosophy for more than forty years, do in due course learn, if they’re lucky, how to do what they’ve been trying to do: that is, they do learn how to do philosophy. For summaries and some criticism of the different higher-order theories, see Van Gulick, Robert (2006) "Mirror Mirror – Is That All?" is the best example for this. [7], The history of analytic philosophy (taken in the narrower sense of "20th-/21st-century analytic philosophy") is usually thought to begin with the rejection of British idealism, a neo-Hegelian movement. Finally, analytic philosophy has featured a certain number of philosophers who were dualists, and recently forms of property dualism have had a resurgence; the most prominent representative is David Chalmers. Since Goodman, aesthetics as a discipline for analytic philosophers has flourished. A perfect example would be verificationism/behaviourism. Be careful about this list. The best known theories are Daniel Dennett's heterophenomenology, Fred Dretske and Michael Tye's representationalism, and the higher-order theories of either David M. Rosenthal—who advocates a higher-order thought (HOT) model—or David Armstrong and William Lycan—who advocate a higher-order perception (HOP) model. Users with a history of such comments may be banned. Another example, perhaps better, is logical positivism. He wrote a number of books aimed at the general public, including The History of Western Philosophy which became enormously popular, and in 1950 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Dennett's version is more balanced; it explains rather than denying. [–]fitzgeraldthisside 4 points5 points6 points 7 years ago (1 child). One striking difference with respect to early analytic philosophy was the revival of metaphysical theorizing during the second half of the 20th century. However, verificationism is now completely discredited, and almost completely irrelevant to any current major debate in analytic philosophy. Word-for-word, I don't think there's anything as influential as the Gettier Paper. I also suggest you check out the British Idealists (ex. Phillips became two of the most prominent philosophers on Wittgenstein's philosophy of religion.[42]. "[40] This interpretation was first labeled, "Wittgensteinian Fideism," by Kai Nielsen but those who consider themselves Wittgensteinians in the Swansea tradition have relentlessly and repeatedly rejected this construal as a caricature of Wittgenstein's considered position; this is especially true of D.Z. Quine. [38] Analytic epistemology and metaphysics has formed the basis for some philosophically-sophisticated theistic arguments, like those of the reformed epistemologists like Plantinga. Communitarians such as Alasdair MacIntyre, Charles Taylor, Michael Walzer, and Michael Sandel advance a critique of liberalism that uses analytic techniques to isolate the main assumptions of liberal individualists, such as Rawls, and then challenges these assumptions. ), Kivy, Peter, "Introduction: Aesthetics Today" in, from each according to his ability, to each according to his need, "Perspectives on Twentieth Century Philosophy: A Reply to Tom Rockmore", "Analytic Philosophy Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy", "Reality Principles: An Interview with John R. Searle", "Conceptions of Analysis in Analytic Philosophy", Relationship between religion and science, Fourth Great Debate in international relations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Analytic_philosophy&oldid=991261395, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 04:08. [2][3][4] It also takes things piecemeal, "an attempt to focus philosophical reflection on smaller problems that lead to answers to bigger questions. Essential Analytic Philosophy This is a list of some of the works which comprise the so called Analytic tradition including American Pragmatism and Ordinary Language Philosophy. He definitely deserves to be on that list. Members of this school seek to apply techniques of analytic philosophy and modern social science such as rational choice theory to clarify the theories of Karl Marx and his successors. Linguistic philosophy gave way to the philosophy of language, the philosophy of language gave way to metaphysics, and this gave way to a variety of philosophical sub-disciplines. free will) require more development. Ayer and the logical positivists. It then takes decades for someone to fish out the good parts from the corpse of the original version and rehabilitate its public image. As a historical development, analytic philosophy refers to certain developments in early 20th-centuryphilosophy that were the historical antecedents of the current practice. I would add that Searle’s work in philosophy of mind and language has been very influential, and Plantinga’s work in epistemology and philosophy of religion is also significant. This is extremely historically significant in analytic philosophy. Nagel's "What is it Like to be a Bat?" Perhaps the most influential being Elizabeth Anscombe, whose monograph Intention was called by Donald Davidson "the most important treatment of action since Aristotle". Hegel. [–]blacksheep1 0 points1 point2 points 7 years ago (0 children). Analytic philosophy is a branch and tradition of philosophy using analysis which is popular in the Western World and particularly the Anglosphere, which began around the turn of the 20th century in the contemporary era and continues today. I would've liked the "must-read" version of the question better, had it not suffered from the same content-killing generality, and were it not something you could easily answer with a quick look at Wikipedia.
2020 analytic philosophers list