Plutarch implies that she also spoke Ethiopian, the language of the " [402][403], In regards to surviving Roman statuary, a life-sized Roman-style statue of Cleopatra was found near the Tomba di Nerone [it], Rome, along the Via Cassia and is now housed in the Museo Pio-Clementino, part of the Vatican Museums. In contrast, Cleopatra could speak multiple languages by adulthood and was the first Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language. [3][184][401] It was erected there by Caesar and remained in the temple at least until the 3rd century AD, its preservation perhaps owing to Caesar's patronage, although Augustus did not remove or destroy artworks in Alexandria depicting Cleopatra. Cleopatra did get the last laugh, however, when she managed to commit suicide, instead of letting Augustus lead her as a prisoner through the streets of Rome in a victory parade. When Ptolemy XII died in 51 bce, the throne passed to his young son, Ptolemy XIII, and daughter, Cleopatra VII. 0 0. [110][111][112] By the spring of 48 BC Cleopatra had traveled to Roman Syria with her younger sister, Arsinoe IV, to gather an invasion force that would head to Egypt. [97][96] Bibulus, siding with Pompey in Caesar's Civil War, failed to prevent Caesar from landing a naval fleet in Greece, which ultimately allowed Caesar to reach Egypt in pursuit of Pompey. Octavian, however, wasn’t doing any deals. His marriage to Octavia now an irrelevance, he returned to the east and reunited with Cleopatra. [114][417], Various coins, such as a silver tetradrachm minted sometime after Cleopatra's marriage with Antony in 37 BC, depict her wearing a royal diadem and a 'melon' hairstyle. [203][202] Cleopatra sailed up the Kydnos River to Tarsos in Thalamegos, hosting Antony and his officers for two nights of lavish banquets on board the ship. [432][note 71] Her ivory-white skin, round face, long aquiline nose, and large round eyes were features common in both Roman and Ptolemaic depictions of deities. This timeline of Cleopatra's life begins with her birth in Alexandria as a princess in the Ptolemaic court to her suicide in Alexandria a brief 39 years later. After burying him, the 39-year-old Cleopatra took her own life, though how is uncertain. [375] Despite not being a biography of Cleopatra, the Life of Antonius written by Plutarch in the 1st century AD provides the most thorough surviving account of Cleopatra's life. What was Cleopatra's goal in life as she was younger? [303] Antony nearly committed suicide after hearing news of this but was stopped by his staff officers. [294], On 2 September 31 BC the naval forces of Octavian, led by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, met those of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. Cleopatra fled to Syria to marshal her own forces. [376][377][378] Plutarch lived a century after Cleopatra but relied on primary sources, such as Philotas of Amphissa, who had access to the Ptolemaic royal palace, Cleopatra's personal physician named Olympos, and Quintus Dellius, a close confidant of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Antony, now controller of Rome’s eastern territories, sent for Cleopatra so that she might explain her role in the aftermath of Caesar’s assassination. [75][77] Ptolemy XII had Berenice IV and her wealthy supporters executed, seizing their properties. [119][120][121] In a scheme devised by Theodotus, Pompey arrived by ship near Pelousion after being invited by a written message, only to be ambushed and stabbed to death on 28 September 48 BC. [309] Thyrsos advised her to kill Antony so that her life would be spared, but when Antony suspected foul intent, he had this diplomat flogged and sent back to Octavian without a deal. After 18-year-old Cleopatra married her 10-year-old brother and co-ruler, Ptolemy XIII, in 51 B.C., civil war broke out between the pair. [53][54][55], In 58 BC the Romans annexed Cyprus and on accusations of piracy drove Ptolemy of Cyprus, Ptolemy XII's brother, to commit suicide instead of enduring exile to Paphos. Where was Cleopatra at the time of her death? Cleopatra was born 2,500 years after the Great Pyramid at Giza was built, yet only 2,000 years before the first lunar landing was achieved. [3][2] Her strong, almost masculine facial features in these particular coins are strikingly different from the smoother, softer, and perhaps idealized sculpted images of her in either the Egyptian or Hellenistic styles. [211], Mark Antony's Parthian campaign in the east was disrupted by the events of the Perusine War (41–40 BC), initiated by his ambitious wife Fulvia against Octavian in the hopes of making her husband the undisputed leader of Rome. Cleopatra was an intellectual who spoke nine languages, including, obviously, Greek and Egyptian. [362][238] The fates of Alexander Helios and Ptolemy Philadelphus are unknown after this point. [394][395] Plutarch described Cleopatra as having had a stronger personality and charming wit than physical beauty. Homes were graced with fine furniture and intricate painted murals. [405], Surviving coinage of Cleopatra's reign include specimens from every regnal year, from 51 to 30 BC. Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester. [495][note 83] Duane W. Roller speculates that Cleopatra could have been the daughter of a theoretical half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman from Memphis in northern Egypt belonging to a family of priests dedicated to Ptah (a hypothesis not generally accepted in scholarship),[note 84] but contends that whatever Cleopatra's ancestry, she valued her Greek Ptolemaic heritage the most. [211][213][214][note 46], Cleopatra carefully chose Antony as her partner for producing further heirs, as he was deemed to be the most powerful Roman figure following Caesar's demise. [227] The latter had imprisoned Herod's brother and fellow tetrarch Phasael, who was executed while Herod was fleeing toward Cleopatra's court. [380], Cleopatra is barely mentioned in De Bello Alexandrino, the memoirs of an unknown staff officer who served under Caesar. [97], By 29 August 51 BC, official documents started listing Cleopatra as the sole ruler, evidence that she had rejected her brother Ptolemy XIII as a co-ruler. The former gave a fiery speech condemning Octavian, now a private citizen without public office, and introduced pieces of legislation against him. Memories of Cleopatra's life have vanished as monuments and palaces have fallen to ruins over the millennia. Cleopatra’s Life . She was 39 and had been a queen for 22 years and Antony’s partner for 11. [450], In modern times Cleopatra has become an icon of popular culture,[374] a reputation shaped by theatrical representations dating back to the Renaissance as well as paintings and films. Interesting to see original artifacts in the museum. He carried out the execution of Arsinoe at her request, and became increasingly reliant on Cleopatra for both funding and military aid during his invasions of the Parthian Empire and the Kingdom of Armenia. [325][328] Octavian was said to have been angered by this outcome but had Cleopatra buried in royal fashion next to Antony in her tomb. [366][368] However, Ptolemy was eventually executed by the Roman emperor Caligula in 40 AD, perhaps under the pretense that Ptolemy had unlawfully minted his own royal coinage and utilized regalia reserved for the Roman emperor. Julius Caesar helped restore Cleopatra to the throne following the death of her father and an attack on her power by one of her brothers. When her father, Ptolemy XII, died in 51 BCE, Cleopatra and her brother, Ptolemy XIII, coruled until she was forced to flee, about 50 BCE. [283][281][267] This encouraged Plancus to advise Octavian that he should seize Antony's will, invested with the Vestal Virgins. [491][492][493][note 80] It is generally believed that the Ptolemies did not intermarry with native Egyptians. [425] A third sculpted portrait of Cleopatra accepted by scholars as being authentic survives at the Archaeological Museum of Cherchell, Algeria. [483] Through her father, Ptolemy XII Auletes, she was a descendant of two prominent companions of Alexander the Great of Macedon: the general Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, and Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian Greek founder of the Seleucid Empire of West Asia. Daughter of King Ptolemy XII Auletes, Cleopatra was destined to become the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and its annexation by Rome in 30 bce. The last pharaoh of Egypt, Cleopatra VII (69–30 BCE, ruled 51–30 BCE), is among the most recognized of any Egyptian pharaoh by the general public, and yet most of what we 21st-century people know of her are rumors, speculation, propaganda, and gossip. [255][256] When Octavia returned to Rome Octavian portrayed his sister as a victim wronged by Antony, although she refused to leave Antony's household. Her beauty and aesthetic appeal has been a subject of discussion and an inspiration for art in popular Western culture. Coin portraits of Cleopatra show a countenance alive rather than beautiful, with a sensitive mouth, firm chin, liquid eyes, broad forehead, and prominent nose. Marc Antony declared her son Caesarion as the legal heir of Julius Caesar. 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