According to the Theistic Lottery Hypothesis, God wanted John Doe to win and deliberately brought it about that his numbers were drawn. Although it is logically possible to obtain functioning sequences of amino acids through purely random processes, some researchers have estimated the probability of doing so under the most favorable of assumptions at approximately 1 in 1065. Second, and more obviously, we do not have any past experience with the genesis of worlds and are hence not in a position to know whether the existence of fine-tuned universes are usually explained by the deliberate agency of some intelligent agency. The probability of getting the particular outcome is vanishingly small: 1 in 21000 to be precise. At the end of this period, it compares all of the sequences with the target sequence METHINKS IT IS LIKE A WEASEL and keeps the sequence that most closely resembles it. For example, it would be reasonable to infer that some intelligent extraterrestrial beings were responsible for a transmission of discrete signals and pauses that effectively enumerated the prime numbers from 2 to 101. Since the world, on this analysis, is closely analogous to the most intricate artifacts produced by human beings, we can infer “by all the rules of analogy” the existence of an intelligent designer who created the world. This is Swinburne’s cumulative argument. It is the very existence of the right kind of intelligent being that is at issue in the dispute over whether God exists. As is readily evident, a program that selects numbers by means of such a “single-step selection mechanism” has a very low probability of reaching the target. While our existence in the universe—and this is crucial—does not, by itself, justify thinking that there are other intelligent life forms in the universe, it does justify thinking that the probability that there are such life forms is higher than the astronomically small probability (1 in 21136 to be precise) that a sequence of discrete radio signals and pauses that enumerates the prime numbers from 2 to 101 is the result of chance. Hume then goes on to argue that the cases are simply too dissimilar to support an inference that they are like effects having like causes: If we see a house,… we conclude, with the greatest certainty, that it had an architect or builder because this is precisely that species of effect which we have experienced to proceed from that species of cause. At the outset, it is crucial to note that Collins does not intend the fine-tuned argument as a proof of God’s existence. Accordingly, while the court was right to infer a design explanation in the Caputo case, this is, in part, because the judges already knew that the right kind of intelligent beings exist—and one of them happened to have occupied a position that afforded him with the opportunity to rig the drawings in favor of the Democrats. Arguments that God exists: Review • Ontological: the existence of God follows from the very concept of God. First, while it might be clear that carbon-based life would not be possible if the universe were slightly different with respect to these two-dozen fine-tuned properties, it is not clear that no form of life would be possible. If the observation of a fine-tuned universe is more probable under the Theistic Hypothesis than under the Atheistic Single-Universe Hypothesis, then this fact is a reason for preferring the Design Hypothesis to Atheistic Single-Universe Hypothesis. Human artifacts are intelligently designed. As before, the problem for the fine-tuning argument is that we lack both of the pieces that are needed to justify an inference of design. In the absence of some further information about the probability that such an agent exists, we cannot legitimately infer design as the explanation of irreducible biochemical complexity. Since the operations of all natural bodies, on Aquinas’s view, are directed towards some specific end that conduces to, at the very least, the preservation of the object, these operations can be explained only by the existence of an intelligent being. • Cosmological: The existence of God is posited to explain the existence of (change in) the world. The material universe resembles the intelligent productions of human beings in that it exhibits design. A Posteriori Definition: Knowledge or arguments based on experience or empirical evidence. As intuitively tempting as it may be to conclude from just the apparent improbability of a fine-tuned universe that it is the result of divine agency, the inference is unsound. The Design Argument . Two types of arguments for God’s existence 1. Indeed, it reads more like the report of anintuition than a formal proof. There are two distinct problems involved in explaining the origin of life from a naturalistic standpoint. Indeed, Hume argues that there is nothing there that would justify thinking even that there is just one deity: “what shadow of an argument… can you produce from your hypothesis to prove the unity of the Deity? As a logical matter, the mere fact that some existing thing has a feature, irreducibly complex or otherwise, that would be valuable to an intelligent being with certain properties, by itself, does not say anything about the probability that such a being exists. Moral arguments say that moral values exist, and this is evidence for God. Since, for example, a cilium-precursor (that is, one that lacks at least one of a cilium’s parts) cannot perform the function that endows a cilium with adaptive value, organisms that have the cilium-precursor are no “fitter for survival” than they would have been without it. Accordingly, the argument from irreducible biochemical complexity is more plausibly construed as showing that the design explanation for such complexity is more probable than the evolutionary explanation. Compare Anselm’s argument to Paley’s design argument for God’s existence. What Algorithm Does The Following Pseudocode Perform? [23] A priori arguments 2. Design A Swap Module That Accepts Two Arguments Of The Real Data Type And Swaps Them. A priori and a posteriori ('from the earlier' and 'from the later', respectively) are Latin phrases used in philosophy to distinguish types of knowledge, justification, or argument by their reliance on empirical evidence or experience. The Cosmological and Teleological Arguments are a posteriori, since at least one of their premises is a posteriori. Premise (1) and (2) may well be true but the conclusion (3) may well be a massive assumption. Accordingly, the empirical fact that the operations of natural objects are directed towards ends shows that an intelligent Deity exists. We already know, after all, that we exist and have the right sort of motivations and abilities to bring about such transmissions because we send them into space hoping that some other life form will detect our existence. The scriptures of each of the major classically theistic religions contain language that suggests that there is evidence of divine design in the world. According to the Chance Lottery Hypothesis, John Doe’s numbers were drawn by chance. ), Kenneth Einar Himma, “Prior Probabilities and Confirmation Theory: A Problem with the Fine-Tuning Argument,”, Kenneth Einar Himma, “The Application-Conditions for Design Inferences: Why the Design Arguments Need the Help of Other Arguments for God’s Existence,”, Stephen C. Meyer, “DNA by Design: An Inference to the Best Explanation,”. First, Hume rejects the analogy between the material universe and any particular human artifact. After all, it is not just that we got lucky with respect to one property-lottery game; we got lucky with respect to two dozen property-lottery games—lotteries that we had to win in order for there to be life in the universe. In Part II of his famous Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Hume formulates the argument as follows: Look round the world: contemplate the whole and every part of it: you will find it to be nothing but one great machine, subdivided into an infinite number of lesser machines, which again admit of subdivisions to a degree beyond what human senses and faculties can trace and explain. Monotheism is the belief that god and the world are identical, Monotheism is the belief that a plurality of gods / creators could exist, An evidentialist is one who claims that belief in god must be supported by objective evidence, Both theists and atheists could be evidentialist, The cosmological argument for god is a type of a posteriori argument, Thomas Aquinas believed that it was logically possible that the world has always existed without a beginning, Thomas Aquinas believed that the world has always existed without a beginning, The opposite of contingent being is a necessary being, The teleological argument is a type of a priori argument, Another name for the teleological argument is the argument from design, Intelligent design theory is an attempt to show that the theory of evolution by itself is able to explain the appearance of design in the world, The fine-tuned universe argument for god attempts to refute the claim that the universe was produced by the Big Bang, The ontological argument is an example of an a priori argument, Anselm believed that god was so far beyond human reason that it was impossible for the mind to conceive of him, Anselm's critic, Gaunilo, rejected the ontological argument because he was an atheist, Anselm assumes that necessary existence is a property that makes a being more perfect, According to Pascal, deciding whether or not to believe in god is not an optional decision, The problem of evil is the problem of getting people to turn from their evil ways to do good, The problem of evil is used by the atheist to provide positive evidence for the nonexistence of god, A theodicy is an attempt to justify god's permitting evil to occur, The greatest good argument claims that allowing human free will is necessary in order to achieve the greatest good possible for a human, The free will defense claims that god could not create free agents with the guarantee that they would always do what was good, D: there is not sufficient evidence to support either theism or atheism, B: the attempt to prove god's existence and that there are no supernatural beings, Which authors defended versions of the cosmological argument in your readings, The principle of sufficient reason states that, A: everything that exists must have a reason that explains its experience and its properties, The teleological argument argues for the existence of god on the basis of, A: the evidence of design in the universe, In his argument for god, William Paley uses the analogy of, The notion of "specified complexity" is a term identified with which position, D: anti-Darwinian intelligent design theorists, The anthropic principle plays a key role in the debate concerning, Anselm's argument may be viewed as a reduction ad absurdum argument because, A: he begins with a premise that is the opposite of what he wants to prove and shows that it leads to a contradiction, Which of the following is a premise in Anselm's argument, C: necessary existence is greater that non-necessary existence, Gaunilo's point concerning the island is that, B: the ontological argument could be used to prove the necessary existence of a perfect island, Pascal's discussion of gambling and religious belief is intended to show that, A: there is more to gain and less to risk in believing in god, According to William James, an essential condition for an act of faith to be a reasonable option is, C: the decision one way or the other is unavoidable, A: the presence of human moral evil needs explanation but natural evils do not, B: terrible events such as tornadoes that are produced by nature, Which statement best characterizes John Hick's position, B: even and all-powerful god could not make free persons into ready-made, perfected moral agents, B: there are some things that are logically impossible for god to do. – exp: Anselm’s Ontological Argument • This is the only a priori argument for the existence of God. 3. While Schlesinger is undoubtedly correct in thinking that we are justified in suspecting design in the case where John wins three consecutive lotteries, it is because—and only because—we know two related empirical facts about such events.
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