The template also provides space for any other relevant factors identified while reading an article at full text to be included. UNEP/GRID-Geneva. Ecotropicos 19:72–93, Rivera-Monroy VH, Twilley RR, Mancera-Pineda JE, Madden CJ, Alcantara-Eguren A, Moser EB, Jonsson BF, Castañeda-Moya E, Casas-Monroy O, Reyes-Forero P, Restrepo J (2011) Salinity and Chlorophyll a as performance measures to rehabilitate a mangrove-dominated deltaic coastal region: the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta-Pajarales Lagoon Complex, Colombia. Not logged in In: Chicharo L, Zalewski M (eds) Ecohydrology and restoration. Restoration is defined by the Society for Ecological Restoration [43] as 'the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed’, whereas rehabilitation focuses on 'reparation of ecosystem processes, productivity and services’. Brown B, Fadilla R, Nurdin Y, Soulsby I, Ahmad R (2014) Case study: Community based ecological mangrove rehabilitation (CBEMR) in Indonesia. Book of Abstracts of the Aquaculture ‘98 Meeting, 15–19 Feb 1998, Las Vegas, p 327. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Zaldívar-Jiménez MA, Herrera Silveira JA, Teutli Hernández C, Comin FA, Andrade JL, Coronado Molina C, Pérez Ceballos R (2010) Conceptual framework for mangrove restoration in the Yucatán Peninsula. 10.1016/S0022-0981(97)00065-8, Todd PA, Yeo DCJ, Ya BP: Feeding ecology of two species of Perisesarma (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae) in Mandai mangroves, Singapore. We analyzed current best practices and recommendations used in the implementation of mangrove rehabilitation and restoration (R/R) projects in the Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) and the Indo-West Pacific biogeographic regions during the last 20 years. If this is the case, the outcomes for these taxonomic groups or ecosystem service types will be summarised in tables. ¯ Unpublished thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore. Environ Pract 12:202–213, Das P, Basak UC, Das AB (1997) Restoration of the mangrove vegetation in the Mahanadi delta, Orissa, India. Vo QT, Kuenzer C, Vo QM, Moder F, Oppelt N: Review of valuation methods for mangrove ecosystem services. ISME Mangrove Ecosystem Proceedings Number 5. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems and International Tropical Timber Organization, Okinawa, Chargoy Reyes MA, Tovilla Hernández C (2002) Restauración de áreas alteradas de manglar con, Chen L, Peng S, Li J, Lin Z, Zeng Y (2013) Competitive control of an exotic mangrove species: restoration of native mangrove forests by altering light availability. This trainer’s manual is viewed as a vital support to the ERDB in its conduct of research and development programs including projects of DENR focusing on rehabilitation and reforestation of degraded mangroves and beach forests. ISME Mangrove Ecosystems Occasional Papers No. Goals of mangrove restoration or rehabilitation often include: conservation, coastal protection, timber production forests or mixed use forests for high sustainable yields [18, 42]. 10.2307/2529310, Hedges LV, Gurevitch J, Curtis PS: The meta-analysis of response ratios in experimental ecology. mangrove and beach forest rehabilitation and conservation. Chapter 7 focuses on the potential of mangrove rehabilitation for high CCMA ES delivery, and shows that mangrove rehabilitation in abandoned aquaculture ponds can provide high relative CCMA benefits, revealing large areas of abandoned aquaculture with favourable tenure status for greenbelt rehabilitation. Bull Mar Sci 80(3):823–837, López-Portillo J, Lara-Domínguez AL, Sáinz-Hernández E, Vásquez VM, Rodríguez-Rivera M, Martínez-García MC, Bartolo-Mateos O, Ortiz-Vela II, Alvarado G (2014) Restauración hidráulica en la laguna de Tampamachoco en el estado de Veracruz para la rehabilitación del manglar y de sus servicios ambientales. Biodivers Conserv 2004, 13: 1059–1074. Wood from mangrove forests is also used for housing material, scaffolding, fishing stakes and more. Environ Sci Policy Sustain Devel 55(6):14–29, Siikamäki J, Sanchirico JN, Jardine SL (2012) Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss. Table 4.9: Proposed Action plans for Mangrove Rehabilitation Measure/Action 1: Attract funds through properly formulated proposals and through encouragement of self sustaining economic activities using mangrove products. Aquac Research 1997, 28: 815–827. Forest Ecol Manag 2008, 255: 2670–2677. As many of the differences in observed effects may be caused by differences in restoration and rehabilitation implementation, a random effects model will be used during meta-analysis. Environ Conserv 1974, 1: 285–294. Society for Ecological Restoration International Science Policy Working Group: Society for ecological restoration international science & policy working group. Florida chapter. These are obviously cost prohibitive amounts for most countries seeking to restore damaged mangroves. Wetl Ecol Manag 20:447–459, Saenger P (1996) Mangrove restoration in Australia: a case study of Brisbane International Airport. The dominant mechanism with which restoration has been approached is through mangrove planting, 62. Once the near shore bed level rises to around average sea level, mangroves will regenerate naturally, developing a natural defence that will protect the hinterland from further erosion. Instituto de Ecología A.C. Mangrove forests tend to have low tree species richness compared to other tropical forests, with around 70 tree taxa found in mangroves of which a small subset have the potential to become dominant [19]. Mangrove systems can be restored or rehabilitated at different scales through a suite of different methods, from natural regeneration through to direct planting of single or mixed species plantations [18]. X i Studies of crabs in isolation suggest different crab species feed preferentially on the same species of leaves [21], suggesting that while many rehabilitated forests may not have maximal tree species richness, they may still support many other dependent ecological communities. Hillsborough Community College, Tampa, pp 201–216, Stevenson NJ, Lewis RR, Burbridge PR (1999) Disused shrimp ponds and mangrove rehabilitation. Ecol Econ 1999, 29: 235–252. The project involved the expansion of an existing mangrove forest on the seaward side of a dike system. Ocean & Coastal Management 1998, 41: 63–88. The focus on abundance becomes clear when considering some metrics used to assess the amount of an ecosystem service (see Table 1). If Kappa is less than 0.6 the critical appraisal methodology will be clarified though consensus. ¯ In Coastal Wetlands: An integrated ecosystem approach. Ocean Coast Manag 132:36–37, Ong JE, Gong WK (2013) Structure, function and management of mangrove ecosystems. We thank A. F. Zaragoza-Méndez for help in locating the R/R sites in Google Earth. REF Florida Sea Grant College, Gainesville, Crutzen PJ, Stoermer EF (2000) The “Antropocene”. In most cases, the causes of damage were a complex mixture associated to erosion, hydrological impairment, deforestation, siltation, and land conversion for aquaculture and other land uses. 10.1016/j.aquabot.2008.03.010, Valiela I, Bowen JL, York JK: Mangrove forests: One of the World’s threatened major tropical environments. The area extension of mangrove sites undergoing restoration or just afforestation ranged from few square meters to several thousand hectares. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Mangrove Ecosystems: A Global Biogeographic Perspective In: Santiago-Fandiño V, Tanaka H, Spiske M (eds) Tsunamis and earthquakes in coastal environments, Coastal Research Library. PLoS One 9(8):e105069, Hamilton S (2013) Assessing the role of commercial aquaculture in displacing mangrove forest. Primavera JH, Yap WG, Savaris JP, Loma RA, Moscoso ADE, Coching JD, Montilijao CL, Poignan RP, Tayo ID (2014) Manual on mangrove reversion of abandoned and illegal brackishwater fishponds – Mangrove Manual Series 2. 10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00016-6, Das S, Vincent JR: Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. 88 p, Couwenberg J, Dommain R, Joosten H (2010) Greenhouse gas fluxes from tropical peatlands in south-east Asia. Coastal land is often of high value creating large pressures for conversion for aquaculture and agriculture or infrastructure and development projects for facilities such as harbours and industries such as tourism [8, 9]. Mangrove Salt Marshes 1997, 1: 127–135. Kodikara KAS, Mukherjee N, Jayatissa LP, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N (2017) Have mangrove restoration projects worked? Restor Ecol. Ocean & Coastal Management 2013, 83: 5–14. Island Press, Washington, pp 417–419, Lewis RR, Marshall MJ (1998) Principles of successful restoration of shrimp aquaculture ponds back to mangrove forests (abstract). J Coast Res 40:79–93, Twilley RR, Rivera-Monroy VH, Chen R, Botero L (1998) Adapting an ecological mangrove model to simulate trajectories in restoration ecology. 384 p, Bashan Y, Moreno M, Salazar G, Álvarez L (2013) Restoration and recovery of hurricane-damaged mangroves using the knickpoint retreat effect and tides as dredging tools. J Sea Res 59:2–15, Ellison JC, Fiu M (2010) Vulnerability of Fiji’s mangroves and associated coral reefs to climate change. A recent narrative review by Bosire et al. One reviewer will apply the agreed inclusion criteria to all remaining articles. Aquat Bot 2008, 89: 251–259. 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.01.031, Bonine KM, Bjorkstedt EP, Ewel KC, Palik M: Population characteristics of the mangrove crab Scylla serrata (Decapoda: Portunidae) in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia: effects of harvest and implications for management. mangrove forests 2. Mangrove restoration and rehabilitation sites are considered as any sites that have suffered large scale anthropogenic degradation resulting in the loss of mature tree canopy cover and subsequently through a change in management begun to establish new tree canopy cover. Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, Tomlinson PB (1986) The Botany of Mangrove. xii + 108 p, Proffitt CE, Devlin DJ (2005) Long-term growth and succession in restored and natural mangrove forests in southwestern Florida. Science 2007, 317: 41–42. Glob Chang Biol 16:1715–1732, Crewz DW, Lewis RR 1991 An evaluation of historical attempts to establish emergent vegetation in marine wetlands in Florida. The test library consisted of 12 studies containing relevant data to the systematic review and identified by the review team from existing publications reference lists (Additional file 1). p 275. Glob Environ Chang 22:332–341, Biswas SR, Malik AU, Choudhury JK, Nishat A (2009) A united framework for the restoration of Southeast Asian mangroves – bridging ecology, society and economics. forest owners, local communities, concessionaires, and forest and other authorities in charge of land use) should be engaged from the start to, for 10.1890/0012-9658(1999)080[1150:TMAORR]2.0.CO;2. 10.1007/s004420100814. Seidenstlcker J, Hai A: The sundarbans wildlife management plan: conservation in the Bangladesh coastal zone. Despite their importance, mangrove forests have faced widespread destruction throughout the past century, with more than 25% of their global cover cleared between 1980 and 2000 [1] leading to fears they could be functionally extinct within 100 years [6]. ELTI and local partners have been working together to maintain, restore and improve the function of a mangrove forest as proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) habitat in Sungai Hitam, East Kalimantan. HH05 and MN001). During abstract screening it is not expected that comparators will be explicitly stated in abstracts, however, from preliminary search testing all relevant studies stated that they aimed to evaluate restoration success in their abstracts, with the majority specifically stating the existence of a comparator. 10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00106-X, Duke NC, Ball MC, Ellison JC: Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Ecol Restor 23:276–277, Lewis RR (2009) Methods and criteria for successful mangrove forest restoration. et al. 10.1007/s12237-007-9008-5. Cookies policy. Mangrove restoration and rehabilitation, however, could potentially be more effective than restoration or rehabilitation in other ecosystems, as natural mangrove forests have low tree species richness compared to other tropical forests and are often dominated by a single species or even exist as single species stands [51]. Environmental Evidence A subset of 20% of studies included in the review will have quality assessment undertaken by two reviewers, and Kappa will be calculated. production as part of mangrove rehabilitation projects has negative effects on incomes andwelfare, at least in the short term. Study inclusion criteria for full text screening: Relevant intervention: Study must include a site where mangrove forest has been established (either through: direct plantations, protection of an area allowing regeneration, natural regeneration combined with supplementary planting or altering environmental conditions to enable a mangrove forest to establish) where prior to the establishment/colonisation event there were not intact mangrove forests. Hydrolog Sci J 56:1423–1435, Vogt J, Lin Y, Pranchai A, Frohberg P, Mehlig U, Berger U (2014) The importance of conspecific facilitation during recruitment and regeneration: a case study in degraded mangroves. Leung JYS, Tam NFY (2013) Influence of plantation of an exotic mangrove species, Lewis RR 1982 Mangrove forests. Wetl Ecol Manag 22:587–604, Darkwa S, Smardon R (2010) Ecosystem restoration: evaluating local knowledge and management systems of fishermen in Fosu Lagoon, Ghana. Mangrove restoration Expertise in mangrove restoration science Mangrove restoration is being used to reverse the huge deforestation we have seen, especially in Southeast Asia. Mangrove forests are biodiverse and provide a range Rönnbäck P, Crona B, Ingwall L: The return of ecosystem goods and services in replanted mangrove forests: perspectives from local communities in Kenya. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2009, 106: 7357–7360. The authors would like to thank two anonymous reviewers and the journal editor for valuable comments which improved this protocol. Mangrove forest restoration and rehabilitation programs are increasingly undertaken to re-establish ecosystem services in the context of community-based biodiversity conservation. 10.2984/1534-6188(2008)62[1:PCOTMC]2.0.CO;2, Rönnbäck P: The ecological basis for economic value of seafood production supported by mangrove ecosystems. Mar Pollut Bull 37:404–419, Underwood AJ (1997) Experiments in ecology: their logical design and interpretation using analysis of variance. Two researchers will assess a random 100 citations, applying the inclusion criteria at title and abstract level. Indonesia has the largest area of mangrove forest in Southeast Asia. The final search terms to be used are as follows (though these may be simplified when searching databases that do not allow Boolean operators or wildcards): Mangrove* OR “Inter-tidal forest” OR “Intertidal forest” OR Rhizophora*, Reforest* OR Restor* OR Replant* OR Secondary OR Plantation* OR Planted OR Regenerat* OR Rehabilitat* OR Stand. Many plantations are both species-rich and managed under several land-use arrangements, with communities sitting … Ecol Monogr 2011, 81: 169–193. Large ponds that can be filled from and drained into the sea are created in areas cleared of mangroves, fragmenting the remaining mangrove forests, leading to the loss of many traditional livelihoods [11]. GD-0010, PERSGA, Jeddah, Saenger P, Sankaré Y, Perry T (1996) Review of selection criteria and ecological guidelines for mangrove restoration studies. Mainstreaming Mangrove Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta, p 35, Cahoon DR, Hensel P, Rybczyk J, McKee KL, Proffitt CE, Perez BC (2003) Mass tree mortality leads to mangrove peat collapse at Bay Islands, Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Primavera JH, Savaris JD, Bajoyo B, Coching JD, Curnick DJ, Golbeque R, Guzman AT, Henderin JQ, Joven RV, Loma RA, Koldewey HJ (2012) Manual on community-based mangrove rehabilitation –Mangrove Manual Series 1. 10.2307/1937691, Bacon PR: Use of wetlands for tourism in the insular Caribbean. There is currently mixed evidence for the effectiveness of mangrove restoration and rehabilitation projects, in part due to a lack of objective goal-setting and a lack of will to fund full ecological restoration favouring other goals [41, 47]. ISME Mangrove Educational Book Series No. Int J Biodiv Sci Ecosyst Serv Manage 11:29–35, Ezcurra P, Ezcurra E, Garcillán PP, Costa M, Aburto-Oropeza M (2016) Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage. For abundance and biomass this will use Eq. Ecol Monogr 62:1–41, Lugo AE, Cintrón G, Goenaga C (1981) Mangrove ecosystems under stress. Hydrobiologia 1992, 247: 37–47. Although a sine qua non of successful mangrove rehabilitation or restoration projects is accurate attention to local hydrology and basic biology of mangrove trees and their associated fauna, their long-term success depends on far more axes, each with their own … as appropriate. 132 p, Alexandris N, Chatenoux B, Lopez Torres L, Peduzzi P (2013) Monitoring mangrove restoration from space. CRC Press, Boca Raton. This can be broken into components as shown in Table 2. When considering ecosystem services more directly, a study found local people in Kenya used natural mangroves in preference and considered them more valuable than replanted forests for most ecosystem services [24]. Restor Ecology 2000, 8: 219–229. Despite the proliferation of projects aiming to restore and rehabilitate mangroves there is currently very little evaluation of their effectiveness. Deb AK: Fake blue revolution: environmental and socio-economic impacts of shrimp culture in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Tangah J, Bajau FE, Jilimin W, Baba S, Chan HT, Kezuka M (2015) Rehabilitation of mangroves in Sabah − The SFD-ISME Collaboration (2011–2014). Wetlands Ecol Manage 2001, 9: 267–279. This review will investigate how the age and initial tree diversity of a restoration or rehabilitation activities determine the effectiveness of these initiatives. volume 2, Article number: 20 (2013) An Internet search will be carried out using the following search engines: Google Scholar - Proboscis monkeys are endemic to the island of Borneo and mangroves forests provide key habitat. Bioscience 2001, 51: 807. Restor Ecol 8:247–259, Mcleod E, Chmura GL, Bouillon S, Salm R, Björk M, Duarte CM, Lovelock CE, Schlesinger WH, Silliman BR (2011) A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO, Menezes GV, Schaeffer-Novelli Y, Poffo IRF, Eysink GGJ (2005) Recuperação de manguezais: um estudo de caso na Baixada Santista de São Paulo, Brasil. The number of mangrove rehabilitation programmes world-wide is extensive. ISME/ITTO, Okinawa, pp 36–51, Saenger P (2002) Mangrove ecology, silviculture and conservation. Ecol Eng 24:403–418, Lewis RR, Hodgson AB, Mauseth GS (2005) Project facilitates the natural reseeding of mangrove forests (Florida). Threats to mangrove forests vary regionally, but in many countries land conversion is causing the biggest losses [8]. Oxford: Elsevier; 2009:787–800. The partner organisation website will then be searched for relevant studies or references. Terms and Conditions, However, the review only used a subset of the available literature on the topic, of which the majority was published in peer-review journals or FAO reports. 4. viii + 240 pp. 10.1007/s11160-004-3769-8. Mangrove leaf litter has an important role alongside imported phytodetritus from surrounding areas in decomposition and nutrient cycling between the mangrove biotic and abiotic components as well as linking mangrove vegetation to fauna [52]. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The search terms were developed following an iterative process. Google Scholar, Bosire JO, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Walton M, Crona BI, Lewis RR, Field C, Kairo JG, Koedam N: Functionality of restored mangroves: a review. Curr Biol 15:579–586, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Jayatissa LP, Di Nitto D, Bosire JO, Seen DL, Koedam N (2005b) How effective were mangroves as a defence against the recent tsunami? Environ Conserv 2002, 29: 331–349. Wetl Ecol Manag 4:93–109. Ecol Indic 2012, 23: 431–446. The area extension of mangrove sites undergoing restoration or just afforestation ranged from few square meters to several thousand hectares. For example, consider a provisioning ecosystem service such as crab harvesting for food in South-East Asian and Pacific mangrove forests [28]. Curr Sci India 85:794–798, Selvam V, Ravishankar T, Karunagaran VM, Ramasubramanian R, Eganathan P, Parida AK (2005) Toolkit for establishing coastal bioshield. 60. Assessing the abundance or biomass of key taxa can therefore give an indication of service levels.
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