It involves the application of foliar or basal herbicides in order to kill existing trees, while either hand pulling or mowing seedlings in order to prevent new growth. Rather than the issue being resolved, more names soon appeared for the plant: Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart observed a specimen in Utrecht in 1782 and named it Rhus cacodendron.[8]. Return to our Trees of Canada resource here: Tree of heaven Tree-of-heaven, commonly referred to as Ailanthus altissima, is a rapidly growing deciduous tree native to a region extending from northern and central China, Taiwan and northern Korea to Australia. [45], Ailanthus produces an allelopathic chemical called ailanthone, which inhibits the growth of other plants. It is also rare in Ireland. The tree was the only one he left in the yard, and the staff would eat lunch with Noguchi under it. [16] Michael Dirr, a noted American horticulturalist and professor at the University of Georgia, reported meeting, in 1982, a grower who could not find any buyers. For many plants, the website displays maps showing physiographic provinces within the Carolinas and Georgia where the plant has been documented. [1][53] It is flexible and well suited to the manufacture of kitchen steamers, which are important in Chinese cuisine for cooking mantou, pastries and rice. Deciduous; On invasive species list; Height of over 70′ Very fast growing; Leaves are pinnately compound; Has a strong, unpleasant odor; Is most common in urban and disturbed areas Ailanthus altissima /eɪˈlænθəs ælˈtɪsɪmə/,[3] commonly known as tree of heaven, ailanthus, varnish tree, or in Chinese as chouchun (Chinese: 臭椿; pinyin: chòuchūn; lit. It becomes rare in the north, occurring only infrequently in southern Scotland. [27] The tree has furthermore become unpopular in cultivation in the west because it is short-lived and that the trunk soon becomes hollow, making trees more than two feet in diameter unstable in high winds.[53]. [25] In Taiwan it is present as var. It grows in boarded up lots and out of neglected rubbish heaps. For example, one study in Germany found the tree of heaven growing in 92% of densely populated areas of Berlin, 25% of its suburbs and only 3% of areas outside the city altogether. [23], Ailanthus has been used to re-vegetate areas where acid mine drainage has occurred and it has been shown to tolerate pH levels as low as 4.1 (approximately that of tomato juice). [39] Growth of one to two metres (3.5-6.5 ft) per year for the first four years is considered normal. [8], The pale yellow, close-grained and satiny wood of ailanthus has been used in cabinet work. The Alabama Plant Atlas is a source of data for the distribution of plants within the state as well as taxonomic, conservation, invasive, and wetland information for each species. [48] The chemical does not, however, affect the tree of heaven's own seedlings, indicating that A. altissima has a defence mechanism to prevent autotoxicity. Identification Notes. ", "Penn State Scientists: Tree of Heaven Really Isn't", "A Tree That Survived a Sculptor's Chisel Is Chopped Down". Ailanthus altissima Common name(s): Tree-of-Heaven The Tree-of-Heaven is native to northern China where it has a rich history dating back hundreds of years. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more. In the 2013 book Teardown: Memoir of a Vanishing City by journalist Gordon Young, the tree is referenced in a description of the Carriage Town neighborhood in Flint, Michigan. Tree of heaven is an opportunistic plant that thrives in full sun and disturbed areas. The seeds sent by d'Incarville were thought to be from the economically important and similar looking Chinese varnish tree (Toxicodendron vernicifluum), which he had observed in the lower Yangtze region, rather than the tree of heaven. They have a long tapering end while the bases have two to four teeth, each containing one or more glands at the tip. introduced perennial tree, reproducing by seed and root suckers. Family Name: Simaroubaceae - Quassia Family. [1], The tree prefers moist and loamy soils, but is adaptable to a very wide range of soil conditions and pH values. The name is in reference to the great heights of the tree (helped by a very robust grow rate). It was mentioned in the oldest extant Chinese dictionary and listed in many Chinese medical texts for its purported curative ability. It has now naturalized throughout much of the United States. Their styles are united and slender with star-shaped stigmas. It contains a quinone irritant, 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone, as well as quassinoids. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. It grows up out of cellar gratings. they are not fused), each containing a single ovule. For example, a 2003 study in North Carolina found the tree of heaven was present on 1.7% of all highway and railroad edges in the state and had been expanding its range at the rate of 4.76% counties per year. Hardiness zones are based largely on climate, particularly minimum temperatures. It has escaped cultivation in all areas where it was introduced, but most extensively in the United States. In both Europe and America it quickly became a favoured ornamental, especially as a street tree, and by 1840 it was available in most nurseries. It also does not tolerate deep shade. The name is derived from the Ambonese word ailanto, meaning "heaven-tree" or "tree reaching for the sky". Male trees produce three to four times as many flowers as the females, making the male flowers more conspicuous. This has led to the tree being called "tree of hell" among gardeners and conservationists. [17] Altissima is Latin for "tallest",[18] and refers to the sizes the tree can reach. Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima Common Name: Tree of heaven Growing Zone: USA: 5 to 8 Life Cycle / Plant Type: Tree Plant Details. Ailanthus altissima resembles native sumac and hickory species, but it is easily distinguished by the glandular, notched base on each leaflet. A few cultivars exist, but they are not often sold outside of China and probably not at all in North America: Nearly every part of A. altissima has had various uses in Chinese traditional medicine,[8] although there is no high-quality clinical evidence that it has an effect on any disease. Each leaflet is 5–18 cm (2-7 inches) long and 2.5–5 cm (1-2 inches) wide. It was formerly known under the scientific name Atteva punctella (see Taxonomy section). The current name, chouchun (Chinese: 臭椿; pinyin: chòuchūn), means "stinking tree", and is a relatively new appellation. The tree is associated with the black prisoner's despair in the face of his impending execution and the spirituals that he sings in chorus with other black people who keep a sort of vigil in the street below: ...they sang spirituals while white people slowed and stopped in the leafed darkness that was almost summer, to listen to those who were sure to die and him who was already dead singing about heaven and being tired; or perhaps in the interval between songs a rich, sourceless voice coming out of the high darkness where the ragged shadow of the heaven-tree which snooded the street lamp at the corner fretted and mourned: "Fo days mo! The name stems from the fact that A. altissima is one of the last trees to come out of dormancy, and as such its leaves coming out would indicate that winter was truly over. Although the live tree tends to have very flexible wood, the wood is quite hard once properly dried. The Linked Data Service provides access to commonly found standards and vocabularies promulgated by the Library of Congress. Swingle. The plant is sometimes incorrectly cited with the specific epithet in the masculine (glandulosus or altissimus), which is incorrect since botanical, like Classical Latin, treats most tree names as feminine. Ailanthus altissima, commonly called tree of heaven, is native to China and was introduced into New York City in 1820 as a street tree and food source for silkworm caterpillars. Unlike other members of the genus Ailanthus, it is found in temperate climates rather than the tropics. [14] Primary wind dispersal and secondary water dispersal are usually positively correlated in A. altissima since most morphological characteristics of samaras affect both dispersal modes in the same way – except for the width of the samaras, which in contrast affects both types of dispersal in opposing ways, allowing differentiation in the dispersal strategies of this tree. A hardiness zone is a geographically defined area where a given plant is capable of growing. [20] The tree of heaven is found within a wide range of climatic conditions. While the species rarely lives more than 50 years, some specimens exceed 100 years of age. It is the only tree that grows out of cement. It can withstand very low phosphorus levels and high salinity levels. They range in size from 30 to 90 cm (1 to 3 feet) in length and contain 10–41 leaflets organised in pairs, with the largest leaves found on vigorous young sprouts. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Scientific Name; AIGL: Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. [23] It has naturalized across much of Europe, including Germany,[27] Austria, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, the Pannonian region (i.e. Its large, compound leaves are arranged alternately on the stem, and can be 30–60 cm long (occasionally up to 1 m long on vigorous young sprouts) and contain 11-33 leaflets, occasionally up to 41 leaflets. [8] It is also considered a good source of firewood across much of its range as it is moderately hard and heavy, yet readily available. A fast growing deciduous tree from China can grow 20m or more. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) [8][12] The male flowers are similar in appearance, but they of course lack a pistil and the stamens do function, each being topped with a globular anther and a glandular green disc. [7] On the other hand, a study in an old-growth hemlock-hardwood forest in New York found that Ailanthus was capable of competing successfully with native trees in canopy gaps where only 2 to 15% of full sun was available. After stopping and taking photos of this unknown (to me) plant, I was able to identify it as Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima). He published an article with an illustrated description and gave it the name Ailanthus glandulosa, placing it in the same genus as the tropical species then known as A. integrifolia (white siris, now A. triphysa). Names. [50] In its native range A. altissima is associated with at least 32 species of arthropods and 13 species of fungi. [1] Ailanthus has become a part of western culture as well, with the tree serving as the central metaphor and subject matter of the best-selling American novel A Tree Grows in Brooklyn by Betty Smith. Because the trees exhibit rapid growth for the first few years, the trunk has uneven texture between the inner and outer wood, which can cause the wood to twist or crack during drying. [7][9] The sepals are cup-shaped, lobed and united while the petals are valvate (i.e. In 1751, Jussieu planted a few seeds in France and sent others on to Philip Miller, the superintendent at the Chelsea Physic Garden, and to Philip C. Webb, the owner of an exotic plant garden in Busbridge, England. The leaflets are ovate-lanceolate with entire margins, somewhat asymmetric and occasionally not directly opposite to each other. The ends of the branches become pendulous. For example, the city of Basel in Switzerland has an eradication program for the tree. There is also a selection, A. altissima f. erythrocarpa, that produces "bright red seeds". Freely suckers from roots forming thickets.” Occurs in a broad range of vegetative communities including riparian areas, artificial waterways and urban areas. The drought-tolerance of the tree is strong due to its ability to effectively store water in its root system. Higher numbers represent more temperate areas. [66], Ailanthus is also sometimes counter-nicknamed "tree from hell" due to its prolific invasiveness and the difficulty in eradicating it. At that time as well as now, ailanthus was common in neglected urban areas. The tree grows rapidly and is capable of reaching heights of 15 m (50 feet) in 25 years. [8] The leaflets' upper sides are dark green in color with light green veins, while the undersides are a more whitish green. Toxicodendron altissimum Mill. [1] Prolonged cold and snow cover cause dieback, although the trees resprout from the roots. In London the specimens were named by Miller as Toxicodendron altissima and in Busbridge it was dubbed in the old classification system as Rhus Sinese foliis alatis. For the TV show, see, A deciduous tree in the family Simaroubaceae, native to northeast and central China and Taiwan, For a more thorough discussion, see the entry for, 'Tree-of-heaven's prolific seed production adds to its invasive potential', August 2, 2017, Penn State News, Kunst-Werke Institute for Contemporary Art, "Seed Production, Viability, and Reproductive Limits of the Invasive Ailanthus altissima (Tree-of-Heaven) within Invaded Environments", Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), "The toxic Tree of Heaven threatens England's green and pleasant land", "The systematic relationships of glucosinolate-producing plants and related families: a cladistic investigation based on morphological and molecular characters", "Seed viability and dispersal of the wind-dispersed invasive, "Gone with the wind and the stream: Dispersal in the invasive species Ailanthus altissima", "Element Stewardship Abstract for Ailanthus altissima", "Phytogeography and fossil history of Ailanthus (Simaroubaceae)", "Preliminary list of plant invaders in Montenegro", "PGR Forum Crop Wild Relative Catalogue for Europe and the Mediterranean", "City urges residents to report invasive Tree of heaven", 'Tree-of-Heaven an Exotic Invasive Plant Fact Sheet', May 15, 2014, Ecological Landscape Alliance, "The Great Charcoal Debate: Briquettes Or Lumps? Muell., orth. "[64] [7] Ailanthus is among the most pollution-tolerant of tree species, including sulfur dioxide, which it absorbs in its leaves. [24] In addition, the warmer microclimate in cities offers a more suitable habitat than the surrounding rural areas (it is thought that the tree requires a mean annual temperature of 8 degrees Celsius to grow well, which limits its spread in more northern and higher altitude areas). D'Incarville had sent seeds from Peking via Siberia to his botanist friend Bernard de Jussieu in the 1740s. The museum hired the Detroit Tree of Heaven Woodshop, an artists' collective, to use the wood to create benches, sculptures and other amenities in and around the building. Common Name(s): Ailanthus; Chinese sumac; Copal Tree; Paradise-tree; Stinking shumac; Tree of Heaven; Tree-of-Heaven; Varnish tree U.S. Forest Service Fire Effects Information System: National Invasive Species Information Center: species profile of, United States National Agricultural Library, National Park Service, Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group: Tree of Heaven (, Cal-IPC/California Invasive Plant Council: plant profile of, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ailanthus_altissima&oldid=990525161, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 23:54. TOAL4: Toxicodendron altissimum Mill. Synonyms: Toxicodendron altissimum Mill.;A. There are extant records from the 1750s of disputes over the proper name between Philip Miller and John Ellis, curator of Webb's garden in Busbridge. The tree's rings were counted, revealing its age to be 75, and museum officials hoped it would regenerate from a sucker. var. 2-10 mm long; petiole ca. It can withstand cement dust and fumes from coal tar operations, as well as resist ozone exposure relatively well. [33] In South Africa it is listed as an invasive species which must be controlled, or removed and destroyed.[34]. [55] There are problems with using the wood as lumber, however. [5] It is considered a noxious weed and vigorous invasive species,[1] and one of the worst invasive plant species in Europe and North America. Ailanthus altissima Other common names: Chinese Sumac, Tree of Heaven Other scientific names: Ailanthus glandulosus, Ailanthus peregrina, Toxicodendron altissimum Shade considerably hampers growth rates. The ailanthus webworm (Atteva aurea) is an ermine moth now found commonly in the United States. On the west coast it is found from New Mexico west to California and north to Washington. [39], In northern Europe the tree of heaven was not considered naturalised in cities until after the Second World War. The pistil is made up of five free carpels (i.e. For this reason, control measures on public lands[41] and private property[42] are advised where A. altissima has naturalized. In the United Kingdom it is especially common in London squares, streets, and parks, though it is also frequently found in gardens of southern England and East Anglia. Common Name: Tree of heaven Botanical name: Ailanthus altissima Legal Status: NEMBA Category 1b. “A medium to large tree to 25 m tall. Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima Common name: Tree of Heaven Page 1 of 2 QUESTION COMMENTS REFERENCE RANKING Social 1. The roots, leaves and bark are used in traditional Chinese medicine, primarily as an astringent. Around the corner, business was brisk at a drug house where residents and customers alike weren’t above casually taking a piss in the driveway. The tree has been grown extensively both in China and abroad as a host plant for the ailanthus silkmoth, a moth involved in silk production. The buds are finely pubescent, dome shaped, and partially hidden behind the petiole, though they are completely visible in the dormant season at the sinuses of the leaf scars. He decided to transfer Miller's older specific name into the genus of Desfontaines, resulting in the accepted name Ailanthus altissima. [8] The fruits grow in clusters; a fruit cluster may contain hundreds of seeds. A. altissima is dioecious, with male and female flowers being borne on different individuals. The petioles are 5–12 mm (0.2-0.5 inch) long. Native to China, non-native in U.S. This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. Leaves infested by the mite begin to curl and become glossy, reducing their ability to function. In North America the tree is the host plant for the ailanthus webworm (Atteva aurea), though this ermine moth is native to Central and South America and originally used other members of the mostly tropical Simaroubaceae as its hosts. Ailanthus altissima. Ailanthus altissima Common name(s): Tree-of-Heaven The Tree-of-Heaven is native to northern China where it has a rich history dating back hundreds of years. [24] It can be very difficult to eradicate, however. Ailanthus: from ailanto, an Indonesian name for A. molucuanna or A. intergrifolia, meaning Tree of Heaven, or 'Reaching for the Sky', referring to tree height. [7] In China it is often found in limestone-rich areas. Swingle Tree of Heaven. The same study characterised the tree as using a "gap-obligate" strategy in order to reach the forest canopy, meaning it grows rapidly during a very short period rather than growing slowly over a long period. [22] In China it is native to every province except Gansu, Heilongjiang, Hainan, Jilin, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Tibet. Den dey ghy stroy de bes ba'yton singer in nawth Mississippi! It was mentioned again in a materia medica compiled during the Tang dynastyin 656 AD. It has a smooth, grey bark with compound leaves which are alternate, odd-pinnate, with 11-25 lanceolate leaflets. The roots are also aggressive enough to cause damage to subterranean sewers and pipes. [44] It is a short lived tree in any location and rarely lives more than 50 years. Wetland Status. The flowers are small and appear in large panicles up to 50 cm (20 in) in length at the end of new shoots. [6] The seeds borne on the female trees are 5 mm in diameter and each is encapsulated in a samara that is 2.5 cm (0.98 in) long and 1 cm (0.39 in) broad, appearing July though August, but can persist on the tree until the next spring. In Paris, Linnaeus gave the plant the name Rhus succedanea, while it was known commonly as grand vernis du Japon. small marks where the veins of the leaf once connected to the tree) around the edges. [23] It is frequently found in areas where few trees can survive. [61] The plant may be mildly toxic. The first scientific descriptions of the tree of heaven were made shortly after it was introduced to Europe by the French Jesuit Pierre Nicholas d'Incarville. Therefore, this species has been proposed as a possible biocontrol for ailanthus in the Americas. Each work favoured a different character, however, and there is still some debate in the Chinese botanical community as to which character should be used. Ailantus rhodoptera F. It is possible that the tree is native to these areas, but it is generally agreed that the tree was a very early introduction. [8] Along highways, it often forms dense thickets in which few other tree species are present, largely due to the toxins it produces to prevent competition. [61], In addition to the tree of heaven's various uses, it has also been a part of Chinese culture for many centuries and has more recently attained a similar status in the west. glandulosa Desf.. A large, deciduous, often unisexual tree, frequently 50 to 70 ft, rarely loo ft high, with a trunk 2 to 3 ft in diameter, and a rounded head of branches. [36] It sometimes enters undisturbed areas as well and competes with native plants. The bark of the tree is smooth and light grey, while the stems are reddish or chestnut. D'Incarville attached a note indicating this, which caused much taxonomic confusion over the next few decades. This helps distinguish it from sumacs (Rhusspp.). [1] It is native to northeast and central China, and Taiwan. [63][67] In certain parts of the United States, the species has been nicknamed the "ghetto palm" because of its propensity for growing in the inhospitable conditions of urban areas, or on abandoned and poorly maintained properties, such as in war-torn Afghanistan. : Introduction: This has been attributed to the tree's ability to colonize areas of rubble of destroyed buildings where most other plants would not grow. [9] The lobed bases and glands distinguish it from similar sumac species. J. Kelly. [24] In other areas of Europe this is not the case as climates are mild enough for the tree to flourish. It was mentioned again in a materia medica compiled during the Tang dynasty in 656 AD. In China, the tree of heaven has a long and rich history. Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) It has smooth stems with pale gray bark, and twigs which are light chestnut brown, especially in the dormant season. Ailanthus altissima. Light was shed on the taxonomic status of ailanthus in 1788 when René Louiche Desfontaines observed the samaras of the Paris specimens, which were still labelled Rhus succedanea, and came to the conclusion that the plant was not a sumac. [7] The bark is smooth and light grey, often becoming somewhat rougher with light tan fissures as the tree ages. [8] The current species name comes from Walter T. Swingle who was employed by the United States Department of Plant Industry. Furthermore, one can scold a child by calling him a "good-for-nothing ailanthus stump sprout", meaning the child is irresponsible. [26] Within China itself it has also been naturalized beyond its native range in areas such as Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang. It grows lushly...survives without sun, water, and seemingly earth. Common Name: Tree of Heaven. Outside Europe and the United States, the plant has been spread to many other areas beyond its native range, and is considered internationally as a noxious weed. INVASIVE PLANT Ailanthus altissima is listed as an exotic invasive species to the Midwest by the Midwest Invasive Plant Network and should not be planted in the Midwest. [24], Several species of Lepidoptera utilise the leaves of ailanthus as food, including the Indian moon moth (Actias selene) and the common grass yellow (Eurema hecabe). The tree was first brought from China to Europe in the 1740s and to the United States in 1784. Ailanthus glandulosus Desf. Tree-of-Heaven, foliage - Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Resource Management. [8][16] The specific glandulosa, referring to the glands on the leaves, persisted until as late as 1957, but it was ultimately made invalid as a later homonym at the species level. takanai. Swingle: Common Name: TREE-OF-HEAVEN: Coefficient of Conservatism: * Coefficient of Wetness: 5 Wetness Index: UPL Physiognomy: Ad Tree. Follow us on social media to keep up-to-date. [47] Another experiment showed a water extract of the chemical was either lethal or highly damaging to 11 North American hardwoods and 34 conifers, with the white ash (Fraxinus americana) being the only plant not adversely affected. This small, very colorful moth resembles a true bug or beetle when not in flight, but in flight it resembles a wasp. The same study tested the extract as an herbicide on garden cress, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), yellow bristlegrass (Setaria pumila), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), pea (Pisum sativum cv. [8][12][13] They appear from mid-April in the south of its range to July in the north. "[I]n a sense, the sculpture garden was designed around the tree", said a former aide to Noguchi, Bonnie Rychlak, who later became the museum curator. [24] It was historically widely distributed, and the fossil record indicates clearly that it was present in North America as recently as the middle Miocene. southeastern Central Europe around the Danube river basin from Austria, Slovakia and Hungary south to the Balkan ranges) and most countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Leaves compound, imparipinnate, ca. Within the oldest extant Chinese dictionary, the Erya, written in the 3rd century BC, the tree of heaven is mentioned second among a list of trees. Ailanthus rhodoptera F. Muell. Native To: China ( Fryer 2010) Date of U.S. Introduction: Ailanthus altissima, Ailanthus, Tree-of-heaven. However, enthusiasm soon waned after gardeners became familiar with its suckering habits and its foul smelling odor. [8][16] The tree was separately brought to California in the 1890s by Chinese immigrants who came during the California Gold Rush. Ailanthus, Chinese sumac, and stinking sumac. [8][23] It also grows along roads and railways. Common Name: Tree of Heaven: Scientific Name: Ailanthus altissima: Family: Simaroubaceae : Growth Form: Tree: Native Range: Central China: Invasive Range: The Tree of Heaven has invaded 42 of the 50 United States, including the majority of the East and West coasts. Swingle ( ITIS) Common Name: Tree-of-heaven, China-sumac, varnishtree. [12] It contains phytochemicals, such as quassin and saponin, and ailanthone. It was one of the first trees brought west during a time when chinoiserie was dominating European arts, and was initially hailed as a beautiful garden specimen. [28] Ailanthus has also been introduced to Argentina,[23] Australia (where it is a declared weed in New South Wales and Victoria),[31] New Zealand (where it is listed under the National Pest Plant Accord and is classed an "unwanted organism"),[32] the Middle East and in some countries in South Asia such as Pakistan. [1] It is also unable to take dye. Also a Latin superlative meaning very high or tallest; altissima: from alta, high. Deciduous trees, up to 25 m tall; bark smooth and straightly grained; branches with pith, yellow or yellow-brown pubescent when young. The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. Family: Simaroubaceae. Furthermore, high concentrations of mercury have been found built up in tissues of the plant. This manifests itself occasionally when expressing best wishes to a friend's father and mother in a letter, where one can write "wishing your ailanthus and daylily are strong and happy", with ailanthus metaphorically referring to the father and daylily to the mother. Toxicodendron altissimumMill. A combination of several of these can be most effective, though they must of course be compatible. [1] In many countries, it is an invasive species due to its ability both to colonize disturbed areas quickly and to suppress competition with allelopathic chemicals.
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